Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Risk perception and perceived self-efficacy of deaf and hard-of-hearing seniors and young adults in emergencies

Alina Engelman, DrPH, MPH, Susan L. Ivey, MD, MHSA, Winston Tseng, PhD, Linda Neuhauser, DrPH, MPH

Abstract


Objectives: The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults.

Methods: The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90).

Results: Significant differences were found between Deaf/HH young adults and seniors in both the sources of self-efficacy and risk perception and their attitudes toward preparedness. All groups demonstrated high resilience. Deaf/HH young professionals expressed more concern about their risk in an emergency than Deaf/HH college students. Alternately, the risk perception of Deaf/HH older adults was often rooted in their past experiences (survival of past emergencies, inaccessibility of communications during drills).

Conclusions: Policy implications include the need to dedicate more resources to increasing accessibility and relevance of emergency communications technology for Deaf/HH populations. This could help increase adaptability before, during, and after emergencies among all groups of Deaf/HH people, particularly among young Deaf/HH professionals.


Keywords


deaf, hard-of-hearing, disability, disasters, accessibility, emergencies, communication, emergency preparedness, risk perception, self-efficacy, qualitative methods, elderly, seniors, young adults

Full Text:

PDF

References


Stout C, Heppner C, Brick K: Emergency Preparedness and Emergency Communication Access: Lessons Learned Since 9/11 and Recommendations. Fairfax, VA: Deaf and Hard of Hearing Consumer Advocacy Network (DHHCAN) and Northern Virgina Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Persons, 2004.

Aguirre B: The lack of warnings before the Saragosa Tornado. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1988; 6(1): 65-74.

Aldrich N, Benson WF: Disaster preparedness and the chronic disease needs of vulnerable older adults. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2008; 5(1): A27.

Messias DK, Lacy E: Katrina-related health concerns of Latino survivors and evacuees. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007; 18(2): 443-464.

Yelvington KA: Coping in a temporary way: The tent cities. In Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender, and the Sociology of Disasters. New York City, NY: Routledge, 1997.

Phillips B, Morrow B: Social science research needs: Focus on vulnerable populations, forecasting, and warnings. Nat Hazards Rev. 2007; 8(3): 61-68.

Phillips B: Cultural diversity in disasters: Sheltering, housing, and long-term recovery. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1993; 11: 99-110.

Fothergill A, Maestas E, Darlington J: Race, ethnicity and disasters in the United States: A review of the literature. Disasters. 1999; 23: 156-173.

Klinenberg E: Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press, 2002.

Institute of Medicine: Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response for Public Health Systems: A Letter Report. Washington, DC: Committee on Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response for Public Health Systems, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine, 2008.

Government Accountability Office: National Disaster Response—FEMA Should Take Action to Improve Capacity and Coordination Between Government and Voluntary Sectors. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2008.

Department of Homeland Security: National Response Framework. Washington, DC: DHS, 2008.

Wood V, Weisman R: A hole in the weather warning system. Bull Am Meteorol Soc. 2003; 84: 187-194.

McClelland E, Amlôt R, Rogers MB, et al.: Psychological and physical impacts of extreme events on older adults: Implications for communications. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016; 20: 1-8

Ivey SL, Dahrouge D, Tseng W, et al.: Assessment of state- and territorial-level preparedness capacity for serving deaf and hard-of-hearing populations in disasters. Public Health Rep. 2014; 129(2): 148-155.

Engelman A, Ivey SL, Tseng W, et al.: Responding to the deaf in disasters: Establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013; 13: 84.

Neuhauser L, Ivey SL, Huang D, et al.: Availability and readability of emergency preparedness materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing and older adult populations: Issues and assessments. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(2): e55614.

National Council on Disability: Saving Lives: Including People With Disabilities in Emergency Planning. Washington, DC, 2005.

National Center for Accessible Media: Emergency Management Survey Report. Boston, MA: WGBH-Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family, 2009.

The Center for Universal Design: About the center: Ronald L Mace. North Carolina State University College of Design, 2008. Available at https://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_us/usronmace.htm. Accessed July 14, 2016.

Institute for Human-Centered Design (IHCD): History of Universal Design. Institute for Human-Centered Design, 2016. Available at http://www.humancentereddesign.org/universal-design/history-universal-design. Accessed July 14, 2016.

United States Government Printing Office: Americans with Disabilities Act, Pub L No. 101-336, 101 Stat 327 (1990). Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-104/pdf/STATUTE-104-Pg327.pdf. Accessed July 13, 2016.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders: Quick Statistics. Available at http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/quick.htm. Accessed August 31, 2015.

Shin H, Bruno R: Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau, 2003.

Kutner M, Greenberg E, Baer J: National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): A First Look at the Literacy of America's Adults in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, 2005.

Lin FR, Niparko JK, Ferrucci L: Hearing loss prevalence in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171(20): 1851-1852.

Dahrouge D, Ivey SL, Tseng W, et al.: Policy Recommendations: Communication and Media Access: Advancing Universal Design of Emergency Alert Systems. Berkeley: Health Research for Action, University of California at Berkeley, 2012.

Steinberg AG, Wiggins EA, Barmada CH, et al.: Deaf women: Experiences and perceptions of healthcare system access. J Women’s Health. 2002; 11(8): 729–741.

Lincoln YS, Guba EG: Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1985.

Borkan J: Immersion/crystallization. In Crabtree BF, Miller WL (eds.): Doing Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.

Heid AR, Pruchno R, Cartwright RP, et al.: Exposure to Hurricane Sandy, neighborhood collective efficacy, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in older adults. Aging Ment Health. 2016; 1-9 (in press).

Powell S, Louise P, Patti G: When ageing and disasters collide: Lessons from 16 international case studies. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009; 134(3-4): 202-206.

Engelman A, Ivey SL, Dahrouge D, et al.: Policy recommendations: Closing the Gap in All-Hazards Communication Access for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Through Standardization of Training. Berkeley: Health Research for Action, University of California at Berkeley, 2012.

Twigg J, Kett M, Bottomley H, et al.: Disability and public shelter in emergencies. Environ Hazards. 2011; 10(3): 248-261.

National Council on Disability: The impact of hurricanes Katrina and Rita on persons with disabilities: A look back and remaining challenges. 2006. Available at http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2006/Aug072006. Accessed November 3, 2016.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2017.0257

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.