Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The pulmonary consequences of sandstorms in Saudi Arabia: A comprehensive review and update

Osama A. Samarkandi, PhD, RN, Anas A. Khan, MBBS, MHA, SBEM, Waleed Alazmy, MSc, Abdullah M. Alobaid, MSc, Adel S. Bashatah, PhD, RN

Abstract


Sandstorms represent a major natural hazard in the Arabian Peninsula. Their pulmonary consequences can be life-threatening, especially to those with a history of allergies, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Novel presentations of respiratory diseases caused by sandstorms can now be traced to specific chemical and organic components of sandstorms. We present an update of the pathophysiology of pulmonary conditions based on the results of clinical and epidemiologic research as well as from greater knowledge of the complex chemical composition of sandstorms. This has led to more precise therapeutic approaches to severe respiratory illnesses and a greater understanding of risk factors for morbidity and mortality due to Arabian sandstorms.


Keywords


natural disaster, asthma, weather, prevention, Mitigation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Bassam AM, Zaidi FK: Natural Hazards in Saudi Arabia: Extreme Natural Hazards, Disaster Risks and Societal Implications. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, pp 243-251, 2014.

Pararas-Carayannis G: Climate Change, Natural and Man-Made Disasters–Assessment of Risks, Preparedness and Mitigation. 30th PACEM, Kiev, Ukraine, October 26-30, 2003.

Assaf H: Water resources and climate change. In M., El-Ashry M, N. Saab, B. Zeitoon (Eds.) Arab Environment: Water: Sustainable Management of a Scarce Resource, 2010.

Kellogg CA, Griffin DW: Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends Ecol Evol. 2006; 21(11): 638-644.

Morris CE, Sands DC, Bardin M, et al.: Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate. Biogeosci. 2011; (8): 17-25.

Dale WG: Atmospheric Movement of Microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007; 20(3): 459-477.

Goudie AS, Middleton NJ: Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences. Earth-Sci Rev. 2001; 56: 179-204.

Reche I, Eva OR, Otilia R, et al.: Effect of Saharan dust inputs on bacterial activity and community composition in Mediterranean lakes and reservoirs. Limnol Oceanogr. 2009; 54(3): 869-879.

Arab news: Severe sandstorm engulf Saudi cities. [April 15, 2012]. Available at: http://www.arabnews.com/node/408965.

Prospero JM, Blades E, Mathison G, et al.: Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust. Aerobiologia. 2005; 21: 1-19.

Meo SA, Fahad M, Al-Kheraiji, et al.: Respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Sci. 2013; 29(2): 642-646.

Park DU, Ryu SH, Kim SB, et al.: An assessment of dust, endotoxin and microorganism exposure during waste collection and sorting. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2011; 61(4): 461-468.

Gupta P, Singh S, Kumar S, et al.: Effect of dust aerosol in patients with asthma. J Asthma. 2012; 49(2): 134-138.

Pararas-Carayannis, G: Disaster Risk Assessment–Overview of Basic Principles and Methodologies in Natural Disaster Risk Assessment. Risk Journal. 2006; 3:17-73.

Yassin MF, Almouqatea S: Assessment of airborne bacteria and fungi in an indoor and outdoor environment. Int J Environ Sci Tech. 2010; 7(3): 535-544.

Barnes PJ: Asthma. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E et al (Eds): Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp. 1669-81, 2015.

Ho HM, Rao CY, Hsu HH, et al.: Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien Taiwan. Atmos Environ. 2005; 39(32): 5839-5850.

Braun-Fahlander C, Ackermann-Liebrich U, Schwartz J, et al.: Air pollution and respiratory symptoms in preschool children. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992; 145(1): 42-47.

Katzung BG. (Ed): Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007.

Leeson CR, Leeson TS, Paparo AA (Eds): Textbook of Histology (5th ed.). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1985.

Cakmak S, Dales RE, Burnett RT, et al.: Effect of airborne allergens on emergency visits by children for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. Lancet. 2002; 16(9310): 947-948.

Chang CC, Lee IM, Tsai SS, et al.: Correlation of Asian dust storm events with daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis in Taipei, Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health. 2006; 69(3-4): 229-235.

Yoo Y, Choung JT, Yu J, et al.: Acute effects of Asian dust events on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with mild asthma. J Korean Med Sci. 2008; 23(1): 66-71.

Laraqui CH, Laraqui O, Rahhali A, et al.: Prevalence of respiratory problems in workers at two manufacturing centers of ready-made concrete in Morocco. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001; 5(11): 1051-1058.

Gul H, Gaga EO, Dogeroglu T, et al.: Respiratory health symptoms among students exposed to different levels of air pollution in a Turkish city. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011; 8(4): 1110-1125.

Prakash PJ, Stenchikov G, Kalenderski S, et al.: The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2015; 15: 199–222.

Shougi S, Abosuliman AK: Disaster Preparedness and Management in Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Investigation. Int J Social Behav Educ Econ Bus Ind Eng. 2014; 7(12): 1979-1983.

Al-Harbi MA: Analysis and prediction of dust storms across Saudi Arabia. MSc Thesis. Reading UK: University of Reading School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences Department of Meteorology Applied Meteorology, 2010.

Ahmed AS, Ali AA, Al-Haider MA: Airborne Dust Size Analysis for Tropospheric Propagation of Millimetric Waves into Dust Storms. IEEE Trans Geoscience Remote Sensing. 1987; 25(5): 1-34.

Meo SA: Dose responses of years of exposure on lung functions in flour mill workers. J Occup Health. 2004; 46(3): 187-191.

RapidEye AG: Satellite Imagery Product Specifications, Version 3.2. Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany: RapidEye, 2011.

Wendy A. Schafer WA: Supporting Community Emergency Management Planning through a Geo-Collaboration Software Architecture. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. 2007; 16:501-537.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2017.0272

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
This site uses cookies to maintain session information critical to the user's experience and environment on this system. Click "Accept Cookies" to continue.
For more details please visit our privacy statement at: Privacy & GDPR