Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The IDEA model for effective instructional risk and crisis communication by emergency managers and other key spokespersons

Deanna D. Sellnow, PhD, Timothy L. Sellnow, PhD

Abstract


Emergency managers are very often the key spokespersons charged with instructing people to take appropriate self-protective actions during natural disasters and other extreme events. Doing so successfully poses unique challenges including, for instance, convincing people to pay attention, translating complex information intelligibly to non-scientific publics, and motivating people to actually take appropriate actions for self-protection. These challenges are complicated further by the uncertainty surrounding many crisis events and the short response time demanded of emergency managers to offer such information and instructions. This manuscript describes the IDEA model for designing efficient and effective instructional risk and crisis communication messages and some of the research that has been conducted to validate its utility. Ultimately, emergency managers can use the IDEA model to design effective instructional messages in short order and educators can use the model in the classroom to teach new professionals to communicate effectively when they face crisis circumstances in the future.


Keywords


IDEA model, instructional communication, risk communication, crisis communication, emergency preparedness

Full Text:

PDF

References


Itin, CM: Reasserting the philosophy of experiential education as a vehicle for change in the 21st century. J Experiential Education. 1999; 22: 91-98.

Dewey J: Experience and Education. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1938.

Kolb DA: Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (2nd Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2015.

Kolb DA: Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Sellnow DD, Sellnow TL: (2014). Risk communication: Instructional principles. In T. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Health Communication. (Vol. 17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2014. P. 1181-1184.

Perleman C, Olbrechts-Tyteca L: The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. London, England: University of Notre Dame Press, 1969.

Zillman D: Exemplification theory: Judging the whole by some of its parts, Media Psychol. 1996; 1: 69-94.

Zillman D, Brosius HB: Exemplification in Communication: The Influence of Case Reports on the Perception of Issues. Mahwah, NJ: LEA; 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Crisis and emergency risk communication manual. 2014 ed. Atlanta: CDC; 2014.

Kovoor-Misra S, Olk P: Leader culpability, hopelessness, and learning during organizational crises. Leadership Organ Dev J. 2015; 36: 990-1011.

Maxwell JC: The 5 Levels of Leadership: Proven Steps to Maximize Your Potential. New York: Hachette Book Group, 2011.

Coombs WT: Information and compassion in crisis responses: A test of their effects. J Public Relat Res. 1999; 11: 125-142.

Walsh KT: A presidential response?: President Trump's critics say his response to Hurricane Harvey lacks empathy. US News and World Report. Available at https://www.usnews.com/news/thereport/articles/2017-09-01/trump-criticized-for-lacking-empathy-inharvey-response. Accessed November 10, 2017.

Lachlan K, Spence PR: Emergency communication: A framework for planning and targeting messages. J Emerg Manage. 2009; 7: 69-72.

Reynolds B: Zika crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) discussion: Social pressure, travel, and sexual transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016. Available at https://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/ppt/zika-cerc-discussion-social-pressure-and-travelers-06-14-16-final-2.pdf. Accessed June 8, 2017.

Yang ZJ: Altruism during Ebola: Risk perception, issue salience, cultural cognition, and information processing, Risk Analysis. 2015; 36: 1079-1089.

Peters E, Vastfjall D, Slovic P, et al.: Numeracy and decision making. Psychol Sci. 2006; 17: 407-413.

Sellnow DD, Sellnow TL, Spence PR: Assessing the effectiveness of instructional risk messages for effective hazards communication and risk perception. (Final Technical Report: G13AC00185). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.

Helsloot I, Ruitenberg A: Citizen response to disasters: A survey of literature and some practical implications. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 2004; 12: 98-110.

Burke JA, Spence PR, Lachlan K: Crisis preparation, media use, and information seeking during Hurricane Ike: Lessons learned from emergency communication. J Emerg Manage. 2010; 8: 27-37.

Taylor SM, Hall FL: Residential planning implications of subjective response to noise: Some empirical findings. In Suedfeld, P, Russell, J, editors. Behavioral Basis of Design. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson, & Ross, 1976. p. 172-179.

Spence PR, Lachlan KA, Burke JM: Crisis preparation, media use, and information seeking: Patterns across Katrina evacuees and lessons learned for crisis communication. J Emerg Manage. 2008; 6: 11-23.

Deb S: As Irma's winds rise, so does a debate over TV storm reporting. The New York Times. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/10/business/media/hurricane-irma-broadcasts-safety.html?mcubz=0. Accessed November 10, 2017.

Spence PR, Westerman D, Skalski PD, et al.: (2005). Proxemic effects on information seeking after the September 11 attacks. Commun Res Reports. 2005; 22: 39-46.

Spence PR, Westerman D, Skalski PD, et al.: Gender and age effects on information-seeking after 9/11. Commun Res Reports. 2006; 23: 217-223.

Sellnow DD, Sellnow TL, Johannson B, et al.: Communicating across continental divides: An empirical examination of the utility of the DIEA model for navigating (late) modernity's “new normal” in global crisis communication. Paper presented at the European Communication Research and Education Association Conference. Prague, Czech Republic: November 2016.

Sellnow TL, Sellnow DD, Lane DR, et al.: The value of instructional communication in crisis situations: Restoring order to chaos. Risk Analysis. 2012; 32: 633-643.

Sellnow DD, Lane D, Littlefield RS, et al.: A receiver- based approach to effective instructional crisis communication. J Contingencies Crisis Management. 2014; 23: 149-158.

Sellnow DD, Lane DR, Sellnow TL, et al.: The IDEA model as a best practice for effective instructional risk communication. Commun Studies. 2017.

Zillman D: Exemplification effects in the promotion of safety and health. Journal of Communication. 2006; 56: S221-S226.

Hastall MR, Knobloch-Westerwick S: Severity, efficacy, and evidence type as determinants of health message exposure. Health Commun. 2012; 28: 378-388.

Spence PR, Sellnow-Richmond DD, Sellnow TL, et al.: Social media and corporate reputation during crises: The viability of video-sharing websites for providing counter- messages to traditional broadcast news. J Appl Commun Res. 2016; 44: 199-215.

Sellnow DD, Sellnow TL: The challenge of exemplification in risk and crisis communication. J Appl Commun. 2014; 98: 53-64.

Roberto AJ, Goodall CE, Witte K: Raising the alarm and calming fears: Perceived threat and efficacy during risk and crisis. In Heath RL, and O’Hair HD, editors. Handbook Crisis Risk Commun. New York: Routledge, 2009. p. 287-303.

Sellnow TL, Seeger MW: Theorizing Crisis Communication. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

Witte K: Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Commun Monographs. 1992; 59: 329-349.

Dutta-Bergman MJ: Interpersonal communication after 9/11 via telephone and internet: A theory of channel complementarity. New Media & Society. 2004; 6: 659-673.

Sutton J, League C, Sellnow TL, et al.: Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: The case of the Boulder floods. Health Commun. 2015; 30: 135-143.

Lachlan KA, Spence PR, Lin X, et al.: Screaming into the wind: Examining the volume and content of tweets associated with Hurricane Sandy. Commun Studies. 2014; 65: 500-518.

Westerman D, Spence PR, Van Der Heide B: Social media as information source: Recency of updates and credibility of information . J Computer-Mediated Commun. 2014; 19: 171-183.

Bean H, Sutton J, Liu BF, et al.: The study of mobile public warning messages: A research review and agenda. Review of Communication. 2015; 15: 60-80.

Coombs WT: Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2014.

Greenberg BS, Hofshire L, Lachlan K: Diffusion, media use and interpersonal communication behaviors. In Greenberg, BS, editor. Communication and Terrorism: Public and Media Responses to 9/11. New Jersey: Hampton, 2002. p. 3-16.

Spence PR, Lachlan KA, Griffin DR: Crisis communication, race, and natural disasters. J Black Studies. 2007; 27: 539-554.

Garnett JL, Kouzmin A: Communicating throughout Katrina: Competing and complementary conceptual lenses on crisis communication . Public Admin Rev. 2007; 67: 171-188.

Rossi M: Power outage in Puerto Rico keeps residents from communicating safety to loved ones. People. Available at http://people.com/human-interest/puerto-rico-power-outage-keeps-residents-fromcommunicating-safety/ Accessed November 10, 2017.

Kavanaugh A, Sheetz SD, Quek F, et al.: Cell phone use with social ties during crises: The case of the Virginia Tech tragedy. Using Social and Information Technologies for Disaster and Crisis Management, 2013; 84.

Fearn-Banks K: Crisis Communications: A Casebook Approach. New York, NY: Routledge, 2016.

Anderson M, Perrin A: 13% of Americans don't use the internet. Who are they? Pew Research Center. Available at http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/07/some-americans-dont-use-the-internet-who-are-they/ Accessed November 10, 2017.

Mileti D: Disasters by Design. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1999.

Anthony KE, Sellnow TL: The role of the message convergence framework in medical decision making. Journal of Health Communication. 2016; 21: 249-256.

Wood MM, Mileti DS, Bean H, et al.: Milling and public warnings. Environment and Behavior. 2017: 1-33.

Anthony KE, Sellnow, TL: Information acquisition, perception, preference, and convergence by Gulf Coast residents in the aftermath of the Hurricane Katrina crisis. Argumentation and Advocacy. 2011; 48: 81-96.

Heath RL: The rhetorical tradition: Wrangle in the marketplace. In RL Heath, EL Toth, D Waymer, editors. Rhetorical and Critical Approaches to Public Relations III. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. p. 17-47.

Anthony KE, Sellnow TL, Millner AG: Message convergence as a message-centered approach to analyzing and improving risk communication. J Appl Commun Res. 2013; 41: 346-364.

Frisby BN, Sellnow DD, Lane DL, et al.: Instruction in crisis situations: Targeting learning preferences and self-efficacy. Risk Manage. 2013; 15: 250-271.

Littlefield RS, Beauchamp K, Lane D, et al.: Instructional crisis communication: Connecting ethnicity and sex in the assessment of receiver- oriented message effectiveness. J Manage Strategy. 2014; 5: 16-23.

Mileti DS, Sorensen JH: Communication of Emergency Public Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State-of-the-Art Assessment (ORNL-6609). Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1990.

Sellnow T, Sellnow D: The instructional dynamic of risk and crisis communication: Distinguishing instructional messages from dialogue. The Rev Commun. 2010; 10: 112-126.

Sellnow TL, Seeger MW, Ulmer RR: Chaos theory, informational needs, and natural disasters. J Appl Commun Res. 2002; 30: 269-292.

Seeger MW: Best practices in crisis communication: An expert panel process. J Appl Commun Res. 2006; 34: 232-244.

Novak JM, Sellnow TL: Reducing organizational risk through participatory communication. J Appl Commun Res. 2009; 37: 349-373.

Winchel B: Las Vegas PD lauded for online response during mass shooting. Regan's Health Care Communication News. Available at https://www.healthcarecommunication.com/PublicRelations/Articles/Las_Vegas_PD_lauded_for_online_response_during_mas_16335.aspx. Accessed November 10, 2017.

Seeger MW, Sellnow TL: Narratives of Crisis: Telling the Stories of Ruin and Renewal. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2016.

Sellnow DD, Iverson JO, Sellnow TL: T01he evolution of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) community of practice: The L'Aquila communication crisis as a triggering event for organizational renewal. J Appl Commun Res. 2017; 45: 121-139.

Lester PM: Visual Communication: Images with Messages. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2013.

Southern California Earthquake Center [Internet]: Los Angeles, CA: Available at http://www.shakeout.org/home.html. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Martin A: Colleges see student influx from Puerto Rico. Orlando Sentinel. November 6, 2017. P. A-1, 10. Accessed November 10, 2017.

Frisby BN, Veil SR, Sellnow TL: Instructional messages during health-related crises: Essential content for self-protection. Health Commun. 2014; 4: 347-354.

Sellnow-Richmond, DD, George, A, Sellnow, DD: An IDEA model analysis of instructional risk communication messages in the time of Ebola. J Int Crisis Risk Commun. 2017.

Sellnow TL, Sellnow DD: Crisis communication in response to rapidly emerging diseases in the agriculture industry: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus as a case study. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Central States Communication Association, Minneapolis, MN: March 16-18, 2017.

Lewis B, Baldwin C: Equating perceived urgency across auditory, visual, and tactile signals. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2012.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2019.0399

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Emergency Management
This site uses cookies to maintain session information critical to the user's experience and environment on this system. Click "Accept Cookies" to continue.
For more details please visit our privacy statement at: Privacy & GDPR