Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Advancing emergency management higher education: Importance of cultural competence scholarship

Claire Connolly Knox, PhD, Christopher T. Emrich, PhD, GISP, Brittani Haupt, PhD

Abstract


The evolving demographics, needs, and demands of society requires managers to be culturally competent in all phases of emergency management, especially when responding to disasters. A culturally incompetent manager and/or organization can increase a hazard's impact on often already vulnerable communities. Are cultural competencies lacking in emergency management education? Are these competencies as important as other highly regarded emergency management competencies? What are effective pedagogy and andragogy to create, implement, and evaluate cultural competency in emergency management higher education? As scholars work to advance the emergency management discipline, there is an increasing need for scholarship of teaching and learning research, especially regarding cultural competency. This article reviews the existing literature, as well as pedagogy from related disciplines, to identify gaps and provide recommendations for future research.


Keywords


emergency management higher education, pedagogy, andragogy, cultural competence, scholarship of teaching and learning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): The college list. Available at https://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/collegelist/. Accessed June 20, 2017.

Clement KE: The essentials of emergency management and homeland security graduate education programs: Design, development, and future. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2011; 8: 1-10.

Knox CC, Haupt B: Incorporating cultural competency skills in emergency management education. Disaster Prev Manag. 2015; 24(5): 619-634.

Shulman LS: Lamarck's Revenge: Teaching among the Scholarships. Teaching as Community Property: Essays on Higher Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc, 2004: 164-172.

Alexander D: Approaches to emergency management teaching at the master's level. J Emerg Manag. 2012; 11(1): 59-72.

Britton NR, Lindsay J: Designing educational opportunities for the emergency management professional of the 21st century: Formulating an approach for a higher education curriculum. Paper presented at: Higher Education Conference, Emergency Management Institute National Emergency Training Center, Emmitsburg, MD, 2005.

Drabek TE: The Professional Emergency Manager. Boulder: University of Colorado, Institute for Behavioral Science, 1987.

Donahue DA Jr, Cunnion SO, Balaban CD, et al.: Meeting educational challenges in homeland security and emergency management. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2010; 7(1): Article 19.

Kapucu N: Developing competency-based emergency management degree programs in public affairs and administration. J Public Affairs Educ. 2011; 17(4): 501-521.

Kapucu N, Knox CC: Utilization of service learning and experiential learning in emergency management programs in the U.S. J Public Affairs Educ. 2013; 19(1): 31-51.

Kiltz L: Developing critical thinking skills in homeland security and emergency management courses. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2009; 6(1): 1-23.

McCreight R: Educational challenges in homeland security and emergency management. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2009; 6(1): 1-6.

Urby H, McEntire DA: Applying public administration in emergency management: The importance of integrating management into disaster education. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2013; 11(1): 39-60.

Waugh WL Jr, Sadiq A: Professional education for emergency managers. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2011; 8: Article 9.

Wilson J, Oyola-Yemaiel A: The evolution of emergency management and the advancement towards a profession in the United States and Florida. Safety Sci. 2001; 39(1): 117-131.

Knowles MS, Holton EF III, Swanson RA: The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. 8th ed. New York, NY: Routledge, 2014.

Gaynor TS: Through the wire: Training culturally competent leaders for a new era. J Public Affairs Educ. 2014; 20(3): 369-392.

Carrizales T: Exploring cultural competency within the public affairs curriculum. J Public Affairs Educ. 2010; 16(4): 593-606.

International Association of Emergency Managers: Global administrative policies and procedures. Available at http://www.iaem.com/page.cfm?p=about/code-of-ethics. Accessed May 5, 2017.

Federal Emergency Management Agency: Principles of emergency management. Available at https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/docs/emprinciples/0907_176%20em%20principles12x18v2f%20johnson%20(w-o%20draft).pdf. Accessed June 20, 2017.

Federal Emergency Management Agency: The next generation emergency management core competencies. April 28, 2016. Available at https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/docs/emcompetencies/ngcc%20final%20competencies%204-28-2016.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2017.

Collins ML, Peerbolte SL: An exploratory research design further demonstrating the need for the integration of critical thinking skill curricula in homeland security and emergency management higher education academic programs. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2011; 8(2): 4.

Comfort LK, Wukich C: Developing decision-making skills for uncertain conditions: The challenge of educating effective emergency managers. J Public Affairs Educ. 2013; 19(1): 53-71.

Wukich C, Frew SL, Steinberg A: Teaching key elements of decision making online for homeland security and emergency management. J Homel Secur Educ. 2016; 5: 8-24.

Carey TJ III: The utilization of client-based service-learning applications in emergency management graduate curricula for the 21st century. Available at http://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/education_etd/245/. Accessed June 5, 2017.

Knox CC, Harris A: Evolution of an experiential learning partnership in emergency management higher education. J Emerg Manag. 2016; 14(3): 201-212.

Maresh-Fuehrer MM: Service-learning in crisis communication education: Revising Coombs’ objectives for the crisis communication course. J Comm Teacher. 2015; 29(3): 173-190.

Goldberg K: Reflective journaling: Building bridges between theory and practice. J Homel Secur Educ. 2012; 1: 63-69.

Maxfield RJ, Fisher JR: Employing critical reflection in an online emergency services course. J Homel Secur Educ. 2012; 1: 26-40.

Russell EJ, Fisher JR: The impressions of emergency services students in a homeland security course: The benefits of reflective thinking and journaling. J Homel Secur Educ. 2014; 3: 14-24.

Alexander D: Towards the development of standards in emergency management training and education. Disaster Prev Manag. 2003; 12(2): 113-123.

Lopez-Littleton V, Blessett B: A framework for integrating cultural competency into the curriculum of public administration programs. J Public Affairs Educ. 2015; 21(4): 557-574.

Norman-Major K, Gooden S: Cultural competency and public administration. In Norman-Major K, Gooden S (eds.): Cultural Competency for Public Administrators. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2012: 3-17.

Rice MF: Organizational culture, social equity, and diversity: Teaching public administration education in the postmodern era. J Public Affairs Educ. 2004; 10(2): 143-154.

Rice MF: Promoting cultural competency in public administration and public service delivery: Utilizing self-assessment tools and performance measures. J Public Affairs Educ. 2007; 13 (1): 41-57.

Rice MF, Mathews A: A new kind of public service professional: Possessing cultural competency awareness, knowledge, and skills. In Norman-Major KA, Gooden ST (eds.): Cultural Competency for Public Administrators. New York: ME Sharpe, 2012: 19-31.

Wlodkowski RJ, Ginsberg MB: Diversity & Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1995.

Edwards F: Cultural competency in disasters. In Norman- Major KA, Gooden ST (eds.): Cultural Competency for Public Administrators. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2012: 197-218.

Akombo DO: Scholarship and diversity in higher education. J Cult Divers. 2013; 20(1): 3-6.

Gurin P, Dey EL, Hurtado S, et al.: Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educ Rev. 2002; 72(3): 330-367.

Farrell L, Littlefield R: Identifying communication strategies in cases of domestic terrorism: Applying cultural context to the Fort Hood shooting. J Homel Secur Emerg Manag. 2012; 9(1).

Hays DG, Erford BT: Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Pearson Education, 2017.

Riccucci NM: Public Personnel Management: Current Concerns, Future Challenges. 5th ed. Glenview, IL: Pearson Education, Inc., 2012.

Ahmed S, Wilson K, Henriksen R, et al.: What does it mean to be a culturally-competent counselor? J Soc Action Couns Psychol. 2011; 3(1): 17-28.

Guimond S, Crisp RJ, De Oliveira P, et al.: Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: Predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts. J Pers Soc Psych. 2013; 104(6): 941-958.

Raffel JA, Maser S, Calarusse C: Accreditation and competencies in education for leadership in public service. In The State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2011: 70-88.

Cross TL: Cultural competence. Encycl Soc Work. 2008; 20: 487-491.

Cross T, Bazron B, Dennis K, et al.: Towards a culturally competent system of care. National Institute of Mental Health. 1989. Available at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED330171.pdf. Accessed June 20, 2017.

Johnson JL, Bottorff JL, Browne AJ, et al.: Othering and being othered in the context of health care services. Health Commun. 2004; 16(2): 255-271.

Dharamsi S: Moving beyond the limits of cultural competency training. Med Educ. 2011; 45: 764-766.

Grotevant HD: Toward a process model of identity formation. J Adolescent Res. 1987; 2(3): 203-222.

McAllister G, Irvine JJ: Cross cultural competency and multicultural teacher education. Rev Educ Res. 2000; 70(1): 3-24.

Tatum B: Talking about race, learning about racism: The application of racial identity development theory in the classroom. Harvard Educ Rev. 1992; 62(1): 1-25.

Canales MK: Othering: Toward an understanding of difference. Adv Nurs Sci. 2000; 22(4): 16-31.

Schneider SK: Administrative breakdowns in the governmental response to Hurricane Katrina. Public Admin Rev. 2005; 65(5): 515-516.

FEMA: Hazard identification and risk assessment. Available at https://www.fema.gov/hazard-identification-and-risk-assessment. Accessed June 10, 2017.

HUD: Allocations, Common Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery Grantees. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2017-01-18/pdf/2017-01007.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2017.

EPA: Promising practices for EJ methodologies in NEPA reviews. Available at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-08/documents/nepa_promising_practices_document_2016.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2017.

USDA: Community disaster action framework. Available at https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/framework.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2017.

Ladson-Billings G: Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. Am Educ Res J. 1995; 32(3): 465-491.

Paris D: Culturally sustaining pedagogy: A needed change in stance, terminology, and practice. Educ Res. 2012; 41(3): 93-97.

Villegas AM, Lucas T: Preparing culturally responsive teachers rethinking the curriculum. J Teacher Educ. 2002; 53(1): 20-32.

Brintnall M: Preparing the public service for working in the multiethnic democracies: An assessment and ideas for action. J Public Affairs Educ. 2008; 14(1): 39-50.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2019.0403

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Emergency Management
This site uses cookies to maintain session information critical to the user's experience and environment on this system. Click "Accept Cookies" to continue.
For more details please visit our privacy statement at: Privacy & GDPR