Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Emergency managers as community change agents: An expanded vision of the profession

Thomas E. Drabek, PhD

Abstract


Reflecting the historical evolution of attack preparedness, technological failures, and so-called natural disaster events, the profession of emergency management confronts new challenges today. In part, these reflect important cultural differences among stakeholder groups, especially local emergency managers, homeland security personnel, and those focused on public health threats and business continuity. An expanded and more strategic vision of the profession is required wherein fundamental assumption sets are placed into broader contexts. Contrary to the drift experienced in the US during the past decade, a major paradigm shift is required reflecting new orientations and program priorities.


Keywords


emergency management, community change agent, history of emergency management

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lustick IS: The War on Terror: When the response is the catastrophe. In Hubbard JA (ed.) Emergency Management in Higher Education: Current Practices and Conversations. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Risk Institute, 2008, 73-98; Nacos BL, Bloch-Elkon Y, Shapiro RY: Selling Fear: Counterterrorism, the Media, and Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Drabek TE: The Professional Emergency Manager: Structures and Strategies for Success. Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, 1987; Rubin CB: Local emergency management: Origins and evolution. In Waugh WL Jr. and Tierney K (eds.). Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government, 2nd ed Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 2007, 25-37.

Drabek TE: The evolution of emergency management. In Drabek TE, Hoetmer GJ (eds.) Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 1991: 3-29.

Larson E: Isaac’s Storm: A Man, a Time, and the Deadliest Hurricane in History. New York: Random House, 1999; McComb DG: Galveston: A History. Austin: University of Texas, 1986.

National Governor’s Association: Comprehensive Emergency Management: A Governor’s Guide. Washington, DC: US Gov Printing Office, 1979; Petak, WF Atkisson, AA: Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Public Policy: Anticipating the Unexpected. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982.

Waugh WL Jr: Local emergency management in the post-9/11 world. In Waugh WL Jr, Tierney K (eds.): Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Governments 2nd ed.Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 2007, 3-24.

Prince SH: Catastrophe and Social Change: Based Upon a Sociological Study of the Halifax Explosion. PhD Thesis. New York: Department of Political Science, Columbia University, 1920.

Sorokin PA: Man and Society in Calamity. New York: Dutton, 1942. 9. Stouffer SA, et al.: The American Soldier: Adjustment during Army Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949.

Hill R, Boulding E: Families Under Stress. New York: Harper, 1949.

Barton AH: Communities in Disaster: A Sociological Analysis of Collective Stress Situations. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday and Company, Inc. 1969.

Dynes RR: Organized Behavior in Disaster. Lexington, MA: Heath Lexington Books, 1970.

White GF: Human Adjustment to Floods. Department of Geography Research Paper #29. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1945.

Fritz, CE: Disasters. In Merton RK and Nisbet RA: Contemporary Social Problems. New York: Harcourt, 1961; Fritz CE, Marks ES: The NORC studies of human behavior in disaster. J Soc Issues. 1954; 10 (3):26-41.

Studies included: Mulford CL, Klonglan GE, Schmitz PF: Causal Model Analysis of Local Civil Defense Director/Coordinator’s Building Roles in Horizontal-Vertical Community System. Ames, IA: Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Iowa State University, 1971; Mulford CL, Mulford M: Community and interorganizational perspectives on cooperation and conflict. Rural Sociology. 1977; 42 (Winter):569-590 and Mulford CL, Klonglan GE: Creating Coordination Among Organizations: An Orientation and Planning Guide. Ames, IA: Iowa State University, 1981.

Drabek TE: Disaster In Aisle 13: A Case Study of the Coliseum Explosion at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. October 31, 1963. Columbus: College of Administrative Science, The Ohio State University, 1968.

Anderson WA: Disaster and community change in Anchorage. In Committee on the Alaska Earthquake of the National Research Council (eds.): The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964: Human Ecology. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1970: 96-115.

Dynes RR, Quarantelli EL, Kreps GA: A Perspective on Disaster Planning. Columbus: Disaster Research Center, The Ohio State University, 1972.

Dynes RR: Problems in emergency planning. Energy 1983; 8 (Nos. 8-9):653-660.

Quarantelli EL: The Functioning of the Local Emergency Services Offices in Disasters. Final Project Report No. 32. Newark: Disaster Research Centr, University of Delaware, 1985: 27-28.

Wenger D, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR: Disaster Analysis: Emergency Management Offices and Arrangements. Newark: Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, 1987.

Dynes RR: Community emergency planning: false assumptions and inappropriate analogies. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1994; 12 (2):141-158.

Quarantelli EL: Problematical aspects of the information/communication revolution for disaster planning and research: ten nontechnical issues and questions. Disaster Prevention. 1997; 6 (No. 2):94-106; Quarantelli EL: Ten criteria for evaluating the management of community disasters. Disasters: The J of Dis Studies, Policy and Management. 1997; 21: 39-56.

Kendra J, Wachtendorf T: Creativity in emergency responses to the World Trade Center disaster. In Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, Public Entity Risk Institute and Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems (eds.): Beyond September 11th: An Account of Post-Disaster Research. Boulder: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, 2003: 121-146.

International City Management Association: Local Government Disaster Protection. Final Technical Report. Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 1981.

Hassell WH Jr.: Foreword in Drabek TE and Hoetmer GJ (eds.): Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 1991: xiii-xiv.

Drabek TE, Hoetmer GJ (eds.): Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 1991.

Waugh WL, Jr., Tierney K (eds.): Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 2007.

Drabek TE: The Human Side of Disaster, Second edition: Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013; David E., Enarson E (eds.): The Women of Katrina. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2012; Weber L, Peek L: Displaced: Life in the Katrina Disaspora. Austin, University of Texas Press, 2012; Phillips B, Pike L, Fothergill A, Thomas D: Social Vulnerability to Disasters. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009.

Kuban R: “Crisis Management: Analysis of the Management of Communal Catastrophes.” Ph.D. Thesis. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta, 1993: p. 2 of Abstract, 288, 291.

Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds.): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006.

McEntire DA: Local emergency management organizations. In Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds.): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006: 172, 174-177.

Enarson E, Fothergill A, Peek L: Gender and disaster: Foundations and directions. In Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds.): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006: 130-146. See also Bolin B: Race, class, ethnicity and disaster vulnerability. In Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds.): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006: 113-129; Phillips B, Morrow BJ: Women and Disasters: From Theory to Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation, 2008.

Enarson E et al.: Gender and disaster. In Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006: 138.

Enarson E. et al.: Gender and disaster. In Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer, 2006: 141.

Jensen J: NIMS in rural America. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 2009; 28 (3):218-249.

Drabek TE: The Professional Emergency Manager: Structures and Strategies for Success. Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, 1987.

Drabek TE: Strategies for Coordinating Disaster Responses. Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, 2003.

Osborne D, Plastrik P: Banishing Bureaucracy: The Five Strategies for Reinventing Government. New York: Plume, 1998.

Drabek TE: Bridge building within emergency management communities: Successes, pitfalls, and future challenges. J Emerg Manag. 2009; 7 (5):11-18.

Larkin GL, Arnold J: Ethical considerations in emergency planning, preparedness, and response to acts of terrorism. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 2003; 18 (3):170-178.

Drabek TE: Social problems perspectives, disaster research, and emergency management: Intellectual contexts, theoretical extensions, and policy implications. E.L. Quarantelli Theory Award Lecture presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York City, New York. International Research Committee on Disasters, Research Committee 39, International Sociological Association, 2007.

Drabek TE: “Social problems perspectives, disaster research and emergency management: Intellectual contexts, theoretical extensions, and policy implications,” (revision and expansion of the 2006 E.L. Quarantelli Theory Award lecture presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York City, August 2007). Emmitsburg, Maryland: Emergency Management Institute [EMI], Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008. Available at http://training.fema.gov/EMIweb/edu/highpapers.asp/. Accessed June 20, 2009.

Drabek TE: Bringing social problem perspectives into emergency management collegiate curricula. In Hubbard JA (ed.): Ideas from an Emerging Field: Teaching Emergency Management in Higher Education. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Risk Institute, 2009: 7-26.

Drabek TE: The Human Side of Disaster. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010.

Drabek TE: The Human Side of Disaster, Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.

Fritz CE: Disasters. In Merton RK, Nisbet RA (eds.): Contemporary Social Problems. New York: Harcourt, 1961: 651-694.

Merton RK, Nisbet, RA: Contemporary Social Problems, 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt, 1966: ix.

Drabek TE: Disasters as nonroutine social problems. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1996; 14 (2):129-153.

Drabek TE: The Human Side of Disaster. Second Edition, 2013; 267-271; 293. For elaboration on the third principle see Drabek TE: Don’t blame the victims. J Emerg Manag. 2005; 3 (6):19-23.

Thomas DSK, Fothergill A, Phillips B, and Lovekamp WE (eds.): Social Vulnerability to Disasters, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.

Perrow C: The Next Catastrophe: Reducing Our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial and Terrorist Disasters. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Edwards C: Resilient Nation. London: Demos, 2009:80. Available at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/resilientnation). Accessed June 24, 2009.

Wilkins R: Federalism and the emergency services. Australian J Emerg Manag. 2010; 25 (1)):3-6.

Neubeck KJ, Neubeck MA, Glasberg DS: Social Problems: A Critical Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007; Lauer RH, Lauer JC: Social Problems and the Quality of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006.

Lustick IS: Fractured fairy tale: The war on terror and the emperor’s new clothes. Homeland Security Affairs. 2007; 3 (1):1-13, p. 9; Lustick IS: The war on terror: When the response is the catastrophe. In Hubbard JA (ed.): Emergency Management in Higher Education: Current Practices and Conversations. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Risk Institute, 2008: 73-98.

Hart G: The Shield & the Cloak: The Security of the Commons. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 173 and p. 176.

Dostoevsky, F: Notes from the Underground and the Grand Inquisitor. New York: E.P. Dutton (Trans. RE Matlaw), 1960: 128-129.

Normand A: Integration of disciplines is in the future of emergency management, business continuity and security. Paper presented at the Canadian Risk and Hazards Network Symposium, Montreal, Québec, Canada, 2006.

Moore A: Emergency Management in the USA: Coming full circle. IAEM Bulletin. 2010; 27 (7): 11.

Lucas V: Book review: Women, gender and disaster: Global issues and initiatives. IAEM Bulletin. 2010; 27 (5): 17.

Springer CG: Emergency managers as change agents. In Hubbard JA (ed.): Ideas from an Emerging Field: Teaching Emergency Management in Higher Education. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Risk Institute, 2009: 197-211, p. 198.

Drabek TE: The Human Side of Disaster. Second Edition, 2013; 35-37.

For example, see Giddens A: The Politics of Climate Change, 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2011; Cotton WR and Pielke RA: Human Impacts on Weather and Climate. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; McGuire CJ: Adapting to Sea Level Rise in the Coastal Zone: Law and Policy Considerations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.

Klinenberg E: Adaptation: How can cities be “climate-proofed”? The New Yorker, January 7, 2013: 32-37; Klinenberg E: Blaming the victims: Hearsay, labeling, and the hazards of quick-hit disaster ethnography. American Sociological Review. 2006; 71 (August): 689-698.

Haddow KS: The case for adaptation (risk reduction). In Haddow GD, Bullock JA, Haddow KS (eds.): Global Warming, Natural Hazards and Emergency Management. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009, pp. 1-17, p. 9.

Rizzo A: Ranks of hungry swell. Denver Post, June 20, 2009, p. 18A. Sheeran quotation appears in Rizzo article.

Andrews TG: Killing for Coal: America’s Deadliest Labor War. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Andrews TG: Killing for Coal, p. 231.

Andrews TG:P Killing for Coal, p. 290.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management: Principles, Themes and Pathways for Action. Washington, DC: FEMA, 2011.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2014.0158

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Emergency Management
This site uses cookies to maintain session information critical to the user's experience and environment on this system. Click "Accept Cookies" to continue.
For more details please visit our privacy statement at: Privacy & GDPR