Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Pharmacy-related theft of controlled substances: RxPATROL® findings

Jennifer G. Erensen, MPH, J. David Haddox, DDS, MD, Maigh S. Attre, Luis N. Bauza, MS, CPP

Abstract


Objective: To characterize pharmacy-related theft data reported to the Rx Pattern Analysis Tracking Robberies and Other Losses (RxPATROL®) database during the time periods before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2016) the August 2010 switch to reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride) extended-release tablets (Purdue Pharma L.P.).

Methods: The RxPATROL® database was queried to identify characteristics associated with theft of drug products. Variables analyzed included incident counts, drugs involved (OxyContin or other oxycodone products), pharmacy-security features, and other incident-related information. The data captured from 2007 to 2010, defined as the original formulation period, were compared with those captured from 2011 to 2016, defined as the post-reformulation period.

Results: A total of 6,905 incidents were reported from 2007 to 2016, with robbery (51.8 percent) and burglary (26.4 percent) being the most commonly reported incidents. The number of total robbery incidents reported peaked in 2010 and remained steady. Incidents reported as robberies that involved OxyContin initially increased from 2007 to 2010 and then steadily decreased from 296 in 2010 to 13 in 2016. Total burglary reports decreased from 2009 to 2015 and slightly increased from 2015 to 2016. Total burglary reports that involved OxyContin decreased after 2009. Total burglary reports that involved oxycodone remained steady from 2009 to 2014, decreased from 2014 to 2015, and remained steady from 2015 to 2016. The majority of reported incidents occurred on weekdays and involved suspects who entered and exited through the front door at pharmacies without security features such as alarms, dead bolts, and cameras.

Conclusion: Following replacement of the original formulation of OxyContin with a new formulation that has abuse-deterrent properties in 2010, pharmacy thefts of OxyContin reported to the RxPATROL® database decreased. The decreases were not fully explained by concurrent trends in total robbery or burglary incidents reported to the RxPATROL® database over the same time period.


Keywords


pharmacy theft, drug diversion, pharmacy security, opioid analgesics, abuse-deterrent formulation, RxPATROL®

Full Text:

PDF

References


Hughes A, Williams M, Lipari R, et al.: Prescription drug use and misuse in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Available at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FFR2-2015/NSDUHFFR2-2015.htm. Accessed January 2, 2018.

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality: 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2017. Available at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2018.

Berge KH, Dillon KR, Sikkink KM, et al.: Diversion of drugs within health care facilities, a multiple-victim crime: Patterns of diversion, scope, consequences, detection, and prevention. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012; 87(7): 674-682.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP, et al.: Mechanisms of prescription drug diversion among drug-involved club- and street-based populations. Pain Med. 2007; 8(2): 171-183.

U.S. Department of Justice. Title 21 United States Code (USC) Controlled Substances Act. 21 U.S.C. 802. Springfield, VA: DEA Diversion Control Division, Department of Justice. Available at https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/21usc/802.htm. Accessed January 20, 2018.

Cicero TJ, Kurtz SP, Surratt HL, et al.: Multiple determinants of specific modes of prescription opioid diversion. J Drug Issues. 2011; 41(2): 283-304.

Joranson DE, Gilson AM: Drug crime is a source of abused pain medications in the United States. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005; 30(4): 299-301.

Drug Enforcement Administration: 2015 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary. Available at https://www.dea.gov/docs/2015%20NDTA%20Report.pdf. Accessed January 2, 2018.

Drug Enforcement Administration: Theft or loss of controlled substances–DEA Form 106. Available at https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr_reports/theft/. Accessed January 2, 2018.

Smith MY, Graham JA, Haddox JD, et al.: RxPATROL: A web-based tool for combating pharmacy theft. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2009; 49(5): 599-603.

Food and Drug Administration: Abuse-deterrent opioids—Evaluation and labeling: Guidance for industry. Available at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances/ucm334743.pdf. Accessed January 2, 2018.

Food and Drug Administration: Fact sheet—FDA opioids action plan. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/FactSheets/ucm484743.htm. Accessed January 2, 2018.

Alexander L, Mannion RO, Weingarten B, et al.: Development and impact of prescription opioid abuse deterrent formulation technologies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014; 138: 1-6.

Hale ME, Moe D, Bond M, et al.: Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain. Pain Manag. 2016; 6(5): 497-508.

Severtson SG, Ellis MS, Kurtz SP, et al.: Sustained reduction of diversion and abuse after introduction of an abuse deterrent formulation of extended release oxycodone. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016; 168: 219-229.

Chilcoat HD, Coplan PM, Harikrishnan V, et al.: Decreased diversion by doctor-shopping for a reformulated extended release oxycodone product (OxyContin). Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016; 165: 221-228.

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy: ASHP guidelines on preventing diversion of controlled substances. 2016. Available at https://www.ashp.org/-/media/assets/policy-guidelines/docs/guidelines/preventing-diversion-of-controlled-substances.ashx?la=en&hash=DB693E5EB914C4FC6D4B0B6065B6D17C634D0ED6. Accessed January 2, 2018.

Office of National Drug Control Policy: Epidemic: Responding to America's prescription drug abuse crisis. 2011. Available at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse1. Accessed January 2, 2018.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jom.2018.0469

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
This site uses cookies to maintain session information critical to the user's experience and environment on this system. Click "Accept Cookies" to continue.
For more details please visit our privacy statement at: Privacy & GDPR