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A relationship between US healthcare worker smallpox vaccination rates in 2003 and presidential election results in 2004

David G. Schultz, Jr, MPH, Melinda R. Mihelic, F. Matthew Mihelic, MD


A statistical relationship exists between state per capita smallpox vaccination rates of healthcare workers in 2003 and state presidential election results in 2004. The potential implications of political influence on national biosecurity decision making are discussed.


smallpox, vaccination, immunization, healthcare worker, Presidential election

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Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Smallpox Vaccination Program Status by State. Available at media/spvaccin.htm. Accessed December 31, 2003.

Democratic Members of the House Select Committee on Homeland Security: A Biodefense Failure: The National Smallpox Vaccination Program One Year Later. Available at democrats/pdf/press/040129%5FABiodefenseFailureOneYearLater.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2004.

2004 presidential election national results:Yahoo! News.Available at Accessed Nov. 8, 2004.



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