Disaster management among pediatric surgeons: Preparedness, training and involvement

Nikunj K. Chokshi, MD, Solomon Behar, MD, Alan L. Nager, MD, FAAP, Fred Dorey, PhD, Jeffrey S. Upperman, MD, FAAP, FACS

Abstract


Introduction: Contemporary events in the United States (eg, September 2001, school shootings), Europe (eg, Madrid train bombings), and the Middle East have raised awareness of mass casualty events and the need for a capable disaster response. Recent natural disasters have highlighted the poor preparation and infrastructure in place to respond to mass casualty events. In response, public health policy makers and emergency planners developed plans and prepared emergency response systems. Emergency response providers include first responders, a subset of emergency professionals, including firemen, law enforcement, paramedics, who respond to the incident scene and first receivers, a set of healthcare workers who receive the disaster victims at hospital facilities. The role of pediatric surgeons in mass casualty emergency response plans remains undefined. The authors hypothesize that pediatric surgeons’ training and experience will predict their willingness and ability to be activated first receivers. The objective of our study was to determine the baseline experience, preparedness, willingness, and availability of pediatric surgeons to participate as activated first receivers.
Methods: After institutional review board approval, the authors conducted an anonymous online survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in 2007. The authors explored four domains in this survey: (1) demographics, (2) disaster experience and perceived preparedness, (3) attitudes regarding responsibility and willingness to participate in a disaster response, and (4) availability to participate in a disaster response. The authors performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine significance. Finally, the authors conducted a logistic regression to determine whether experience or preparedness factors affected the respondent’s availability or willingness to respond to a disaster as a first receiver.
Results: The authors sent 725 invitations and received 265 (36.6 percent) completed surveys. Overall, the authors found that 77 percent of the respondents felt “definitely” responsible for helping out during a disaster but only 24 percent of respondents felt “definitely” prepared to respond to a disaster. Most felt they needed additional training, with 74 percent stating that they definitely or probably needed to do more training. Among experiential factors, the authors found that attendance at a national conference was associated with the highest sense of preparedness. The authors determined that subjects with actual disaster experience were about four times more likely to feel prepared than those with no disaster experience (p < 0.001). The authors also demonstrated that individuals with a defined leadership position in a disaster response plan are twice as likely to feel prepared (p _ 0.002) and nearly five times more willing to respond to a disaster than those without a leadership role. The authors found other factors that predicted willingness including the following: a contractual agreement to respond (OR 2.3); combat experience (OR 2.1); and prior disaster experience (OR 2.0). Finally, the authors found that no experiential variables or training types were associated with an increased availability to respond to a disaster.
Conclusions: A minority of pediatric surgeons feel prepared, and most feel they require more training. Current training methods may be ineffectual in building a prepared and willing pool of first receivers. Disaster planners must plan for healthcare worker related issues, such as transportation and communication. Further work and emphasis is needed to bolster participation in disaster preparedness training.


Keywords


disaster training, pediatric surgery, mass casualty, trauma

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2008.0001

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