Public health preparedness for maritime terrorist attacks on ports and coastal waters

John J. Wassel, MD

Abstract


Objective: To assess the risk of mass casualties and necessary public health and provider preparation relating to maritime terrorist attacks on the US ports.
Design: Articles were obtained by searching PubMed database, Google, and Google Scholar search engines using terms such as “maritime security,” “maritime terrorism,” “port security,” “terrorist attacks on the US ports,” “terrorist nuclear attacks,” “terrorist attacks on liquefied natural gas tankers,” and “terrorist attack on high occupancy ships.”
Setting: US ports and coastal waters.
Results: Seventy-six journal articles were reviewed.
Conclusions: Morbidity and mortality high for nuclear terrorist attack; mortality low but morbidity potentially high for radiological attacks. It would be more difficult for terrorist attack on natural gas tankers to cause high mortality and/or morbidity.


Keywords


terrorism, ports, nuclear, dirty bomb, natural gas tanker

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fritelli JF: Port and maritime security: Background and issues for congress 2005. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/ RL31733.pdf. Accessed May 19, 2008.

Parfomak PW, Fritelli J: Maritime security: Potential terrorist attacks and protection priorities. Congressional Research Service 2007. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesecur/RL33787.pdf. Accessed May 19, 2008.

Greenberg MD, Chalk P,Willis HH, et al.: Maritime terrorism: Risk and liability. RAND center for terrorism risk management policy 2006. Available at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2006/ RAND_MG520.pdf. Accessed May 20, 2008.

Abt CC: The economic impact of nuclear terrorist attacks on freight transport systems in an age of seaport vulnerability 2003. Available at http://www.abtassociates.com/report/ES-economic_Impact_of_ Nuclear_Terrorism_Attacks.pdf. Accessed June 3, 2008.

Medalia J: Terrorist nuclear attacks on seaports: Threat and response. Congressional Research Service 2005. Available at http:// www.fas.org/irp/crs/R521293.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2008.

United States Government Accountability Office: Combating nuclear terrorism: Federal efforts to respond to nuclear and radiological threats and to protect key emergency response facilities could be strengthened 2007. Available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/ d08285t.pdf. Accessed May 22, 2008.

Meade C, Molander, RC: Considering the effects of a catastrophic terrorist attack. RAND Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy 2006.Available at http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/ TR391/. Accessed May 21, 2008.

Molander RC: Perspectives on the threat of nuclear terrorism. Testimony presented before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs 2008. Available at http://rand.org/ pub/testomonies/2008/RAND_CT304.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2008.

United States Government Accountability Office: Combating nuclear terrorism: Federal efforts to respond to nuclear and radiological threats and to protect key emergency response facilities could be strengthened 2007. Available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/ d08285t.pdf. Accessed May 22, 2008.

Argonne National Laboratory: Radiological dispersal device (RDD): Human health fact sheet 2005. Available at http://www. ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/rdd.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2008.

Rosoff H, von Winterfeldt D: A Risk and economic analysis of dirty bomb attacks on the ports of Los Angles and Long Beach 2007. Available at http://www.usc.edu/dept/create/research/reports.htm. Accessed May 228, 2008.

Argonne National Laboratory: Radiological dispersal device (RDD): Human health fact sheet 2005. Available at http://www. ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/rdd.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2008.

Barnett DJ, Parker CL, Blodgett DW, et al.: Understanding radiologic and nuclear terrorism as public health threats: Preparedness and response perspectives 2006.Available at http://jnm.snmjournals. org/cgi/content/full/47/10/1653. Accessed June 15, 2008.

United States Government Accountability Office: Maritime security: Public safety consequences of a tanker carrying liquefied natural gas need clarification 2007. Available at http://www.gao.gov/new. items/d07316.pdf. Accessed May 20, 2008.

Parfomak PW: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure security: Issues for congress. Congressional Research Service 2005. Available at http://ncswonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/05mar/RL32073.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2008.

McNicholas M: Maritime Security. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc, 2008.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the US.Available at http://www.ferc.gov/industries.lng.asp. Accessed May 27, 2008.

Parfomak PW, Fritelli J: Maritime security: Potential terrorist attacks and protection priorities. Congressional Research Service 2007. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesecur/RL33787.pdf. Accessed May 19, 2008.

Massport: About the Port 2007.Available at http://www.massport. com/ports/orthrmp.html. Accessed May 29, 2008.

Parfomak PW, Fritelli J: Maritime security: Potential terrorist attacks and protection priorities. Congressional Research Service 2007. Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesecur/RL33787.pdf. Accessed May 19, 2008.

Davis AM: Terrorism and the Maritime Transportation System— Are We on a Collision Course? Livermore, CA:WingSpan Press, 2008.

Hightower M, Gritzo L, Luketa-Hanlin A, et al.: Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water. Sandia National Laboratories 2004. Available at http://www.ferc.gov/industries/lng/safety/reports/ sandia-rep.asp. Accessed May 28, 2008.

Lehr P: Module: Introduction to Maritime Terrorism and Security. Certificate Program in Terrorism Studies 2007. Scotland: University of St. Andrews, 2007.

Kaplan E: Liquefied natural gas: A potential terrorist target? Council on Foreign Relations 2006. Available at http://www.cfr.org/ publication/9810/liquefied_natural_gas.html. Accessed April 12, 2008.

Parfomak PW: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure security: Issues for congress. Congressional Research Service 2005. Available at http://ncswonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/05mar/RL32073.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2008.

United States Government Accountability Office: Federal efforts needed to address challenges in preventing and responding to terrorist attacks on energy commodity tankers 2007. Available at http://www. gao.gov/news.items/d08141.pdf. Accessed May 20, 2008.

US Energy Information Administration: International liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports by country of origin. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/gastrade.html. Accessed May 28, 2008.

National Marine Engineers: Meeting the nation’s energy needs with liquefied natural gas on us-flag ships 2005. Available at http://www. mindfully.org/Energy/2005/LNG-US-Flag-Ships22mar05.htm. Accessed June 3, 2008.

United States Government Accountability Office: Maritime security: Public safety consequences of a tanker carrying liquefied natural gas need clarification 2007. Available at http://www.gao.gov/ new.items/d07316.pdf. Accessed May 20, 2008.

Hightower M, Gritzo L, Luketa-Hanlin A, et al.: Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water. Sandia National Laboratories 2004. Available at http://www.ferc.gov/industries/lng/safety/reports/sandia-rep.asp. Accessed May 28, 2008.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2008.0047

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.