Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Flash flood preparedness in Golestan province of Iran: A community intervention trial

Ali Ardalan, MD, PhD, Kourosh Holakouie Naieni, PhD, Mahmood Mahmoodi, PhD, Ali-Mohamad Zanganeh, MD, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar, MD, PhD, Mohamad-Reza Honarvar, MD, MPH, Mohamad-Javad Kabir, MSc

Abstract


Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of a community- based preparedness program for flash floods
Design: A controlled community intervention trial with preassessment and postassessment.
Setting: Fifteen intervention villages and 16 control villages in Golestan province of Iran
Participants: People more than six years of age.
Intervention: Intervention program consisted assembling Village Disaster Taskforces (VDTs), training of VDTs and community, evacuation drill, and program monitoring.
Main outcome measures: Individual participation in household preparedness actions including, preparedness meeting, risk mapping, preparation of emergency supplies, assisting vulnerable people, and evacuation drill.
Results: Our intervention improved preparedness of local community for flash floods in term of all interested outcome measures. For instance, adjusted odds ratio for participation in an evacuation drill in intervention area in postassessment compared with preassessment was 29.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.77-38.76), whereas in control area it was 2.69 (95% CI: 1.96-3.70). Difference in these odds ratios was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Participation in a family preparedness meeting and risk mapping were helpful in motivating individuals to take other preparedness actions. Women were found prepared as much as the men.Younger people showed lower participation in preparation of family emergency supplies but higher attendance in evacuation drills. Participation in evacuation drills decreased with increasing age. It was a positive association between risk perception and taking all preparedness actions.
Conclusion: Flood preparedness programs should focus on participatory risk assessment and preparedness techniques, strive to improve risk perception and female capabilities, and ensure providing assistance to the older people during evacuation.


Keywords


flash floods, community-based, preparedness, Iran

Full Text:

PDF

References


International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR): Global Assessment Report on Disaster Reduction. Geneva: United Nations, 2009.

Moosivand AA, Mirzaie A: Ministry of Jihad-e-agriculture. Report: Introduction of Flood Database.Tehran, 2006.

Management and Planning Organization (MPO): Socio-Economical Report of Golestan Province. Management and Planning Organization Pub,Tehran, 2004.

Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS): Report of Golestan Flash Flood, August 11, 2001. Gorgan, 2001.

Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS): Report of Golestan Flash Flood, August 13, 2001. Gorgan, 2001.

Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS): Report of Golestan Flash Flood, Summer, 2005. Gorgan, 2005.

Ardalan A, Naieni KH, Kabir MJ, et al.: Evaluation of Golestan province’s early warning system for flash floods, Iran, 2006-7. Int J Biometeorol. 2009; 153(3): 247-254.

Ebi KL, Schmier JK: A stitch in time: Improving public health early warning systems for extreme weather events. Epidemiol Rev. 2005; 27: 115-121.

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC): Community-Based Disaster Risk Management for Local Authorities. 1st ed. Thailand: ADPC, 2006.

Editorial. Preparedness is the best flood defence. Lancet. 2007; 37: 1008.

Puderbaugh A: Iran’s health houses provide model for Mississippi Delta. Glob Health Matters. November–December, 2009, 8(6). Available at http://www.fic.nih.gov/news/publications/global_ health_matters/2009/1209_health-house.htm. Accessed May 25, 2010.

Gregg CE, Houghton BF, Johnston DM, et al.: The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes, Hawaiki. J Volcanol Geothermal Res. 2004; 130: 179-196.

Miceli R, Sotgiu I, Settanni M: Disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk: A study in an alpine valley in Italy. J Environ Psychol. 2008; 28: 164-173.

van Aalst MK, Cannon T, Burton I: Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment. Glob Environ Change. 2008; 18(1): 165-179.

Nishikawa S: Community based flood hazard mapping: A simple and easy-to-understand tool for public awareness. 2003.Available at http://www.unisdr.org/eng/public_aware/world_camp/2003/english/ 8_Article_ADRC_eng.pdf. Accessed December 28, 2009.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Flood. Available at http://www.fema.gov/hazard/flood/index.shtm. Accessed December 28, 2009.

Knocke ET, Kolivras KN: Flash flood awareness in Southwest Virginia. Risk Anal. 2007; 27(1): 155-169.

Barnett J, Breakwell GM: Risk perception and experience: Hazard personality profiles and individual differences. Risk Anal. 2001; 21(1): 171-177.

Fothergill A: Gender, risk, and disaster. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1996; 14: 33-56.

Flynn J, Slovic P, Mertz CK: Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Anal. 1994; 14(6): 1101-1108.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2010.0025

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.