Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Early casualty estimates and medical help management after the M7.3 Kermanshah earthquake of November 12, 2017 in Iran

Amir Mansour Farahbod, PhD, Max Wyss, PhD

Abstract


Medical responses to fatal earthquakes have to be rapid to save lives. Here we report the QLARM alert that was issued less than an hour after the magnitude 7.3 Kermanshah, Iran, earthquake of 2017 and the following medical response. The near-real-time estimates of fatalities were 520, on average, and it took official and news reports about 2 days to settle on a minimum of 630 fatalities as a final count. The response of various Iranian agencies was rapid and effective, facilitated by the relatively small area of the disaster (radius of about 50 km). Although this disaster was not large enough to require international first responders to rush to the scene, it is clear that in very large earthquake disasters, a fast, accurately informed response saves lives. For international teams to be of optimal use, the locations and functionality levels of health facilities should be known. This information could be included in the earthquake alerts, but the necessary worldwide data on hospitals are currently not available.

 


Keywords


earthquake disasters, first response, real time casualty estimates

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wyss M: Earthquake loss estimates help and challenge medical disaster responders. Am J Disaster Med. 2017; 12(2): 71-73.

Trendafiloski G, Wyss M, Rosset P: Loss estimation module in the second generation software QLARM. In Spence R, So E, Scawthorn C (eds.): Human Casualties in Earthquakes: Progress in Modeling and Mitigation. London: Springer, 2011: 381-391.

Wyss M: Ten years of real-time earthquake loss alerts. In Wyss M (ed.): Earthquake Hazard, Risk, and Disasters. Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 2014: 143-165.

Wyss M, Gupta S, Rosset P: Casualty estimates in repeat Himalayan earthquakes in India. Bull Seismol Soc Am. 2018; 108(5A): 2877-2893.

Li JW, Wyss M, Wu ZL, et al.: Estimated casualty risk for six scenario great earthquakes in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China, for disaster preparation. International Conference on the Decade memory of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Chengdu, China, 2020.

Wyss M: Report estimated quake death tolls to save lives. Nature. 2017; 545: 151-153.

Bartholdson S, Von Schreeb J: Natural disasters and injuries: What does a surgeon need to know? Curr Trauma Rep. 2018; 4: 103-108.

Jaiswal K, Wald D, Porter K: Creating global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management Earthquake Spectra. 2010; 26(3): 731-748.

IRC: Increasing the number of the dead to 10 people because of the earthquake and set up camps to shelter the affected families in Darbandikhan and Halapcha, 2017. Available at https://en.ircs.org.iq/iraqi-red-crescent-increasing-the-number-of-the-dead-to-10-people-because-of-the-earthquake-and-set-up-camps-to-shelterthe-affected-families-in-darbandikhan-and-halapcha/. Accessed February 15, 2020.

USGS: M 7.3, 29km S of Halabjah, Iraq. Earthquake Hazard Program. 2017. Available at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000bmcg/impact. Accessed June 18, 2020.

Amini-Hosseini K, Ghaemaghamian MR, Mansouri B: Sar-e- Pol-e Zahab earthquake report, in Farsi. 5th ed. Farsi, Iran: IIEES Publication, 2017; Chap. 15.

ILMO: Identified victims of the 2017 Kermanshah earthquake, 2017. Available at https://lmo.ir/news/79371.htm. Accessed October 11, 2019.

NOAA: Comment for the significant earthquake (IRAN: Kermanshah; IRAQ: Kurdistan). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2018. Available at https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/results?eq_0=10275&t=101650&s=13&d=22,26,13,12&nd=display. Accessed April 4, 2020.

IRNA: Fatalities of Kermanshah earthquake increased to 530. IRNA News Agency 2017. Available at https://www.irna.ir/news/82730583/. Accessed April 21, 2020.

Saeb M, Yaghoubi M, Bagheri N, et al.: Musculoskeletal injuries of the Kermanshah earthquake and orthopedic management at trauma center of Kermanshah, West Iran. Trauma Monthly. 2019; 24(3): 1-4.

IRCS: Operations and achievements after the 2017 Kermanshah earthquake, in Farsi, 2018. Availabel at http://rcs.ir/?p=241231. Accessed September 10, 2019.

Khankeh H, Kolivand P, Beyrami JM, et al.: A lesson learned from Iran’s recent earthquake. Health Emerg Disasters Q. 2018; 3(4): 221-233.

Farsi-Wikipedia: Report on the 2017 Ezgeleh earthquake. Farsi-Wikipedia 2020, Farsi, Iran.

Anadolu: Turkish aid group helps 60000 in quake-hit Iran, Iraq. Anadolu News Agency, 2017. Available at https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/turkish-aid-group-helps-60-000-in-quake-hit-iraniraq/972861#!. Accessed April 13, 2020.

Anadolu: Tehran welcomes Pakistan aid following deadly earthquake. Anadolu News Agency, 2017. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/tehran-welcomes-pakistan-aid-following-deadlyquake/968452. Accessed April 13, 2020.

Iran-Daily-News: Foreign aid to Iran quake continues. Iran Daily, December 29, 2017. Available at http://www.iran-daily.com/News/207135.html. Accessed November 15, 2020.

Berberian M, Qorashi M, Jackson JA, et al.: The Rudbar-Tarom earthquake of 20 June 1990 in NW Persia: Preliminary field and seismological observations and its tectonic significance. Bull Seismol Soc Am. 1992; 82(4): 1726-1755.

USGS Significant Earthquakes: US Geological Survey, 2003. Available at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/browse/significant.php?year=2003. Accessed 2020. Accessed July 7, 2020.

NOAA Significant Earthquakes: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2003. Available at https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazel/view/hazards/earthquake/search. Accessed July 7, 2020.

Khadem A, Gerashi MK, Shamspoor N: Disaster management during Bam earthquake: A quality assessment. Dev World Epidemiol. 2013; 1(1): e0006. DOI: 10.14360/dwepi.e0006.

Ramazi H, Jigheh HS: The Bam (Iran) earthquake of December 26, 2003: From an engineering and seismological point of view. J Asian Earth Scie. 2006; 27(5): 576-584.

Ahmadi A, Bazargan-Hejazi S: Kermanshah earthquake, lessons learned. J Injury Violence Res. 2018; 10(1): 1-2.

IRSC: Preliminary report of M7.3 Ezgeleh earthquake in Kermanshah (in Farsi), 2017. Available at https://ut.ac.ir/file/download/news/1510651899-report-1-1-2-.pdf. Accessed September 10, 2019.

Wyss M, Wu ZL: How many lives were saved by the evacuation before the M7.3 Haicheng Earthquake of 1975? Seismol Res Lett. 2014; 85(1): 126-129.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2021.0386

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.