Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Haddon matrix analysis of medical preparedness for mass gathering music festivals

Andrew J. Rosenblum, MSPH, Christopher M. Wend, BS, NRP, Asa M. Margolis, DO, MPH, MS

Abstract


Beginning in the 1960s as a tool to disaggregate complicated auto injuries, the Haddon matrix has evolved into a modern method of analyzing complex public health challenges. Throughout the United States and internationally, music festivals have become a rapidly growing and increasingly complex area of mass gathering medicine. Given the austere environment and inherent challenges of providing medical care during a music festival, we utilized a modified Haddon matrix. The objective is to assess the relevant human, physical, and sociocultural factors that impact these festivals throughout the pre-event, event, and post-event time periods. This will ensure an all-hazards preparedness approach to the historically high incidence of traumatic injuries and polysubstance abuse, coupled with modern challenges such as infectious diseases and acts of intentional violence.

Keywords


Haddon matrix, mass gathering event medicine, public health preparedness

Full Text:

PDF

References


Haddon W: The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: The transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968; 58(8): 1431-1438. DOI: 10.2105/ajph.58.8.1431.

Barnett DJ, Balicer RD, Lucey DR, et al.: A systematic analytic approach to pandemic influenza preparedness planning. PLoS Med. 2005; 2(12): e359.

Cole G, Rosenblum AJ, Boston M, et al.: Applying the Haddon matrix to hospital earthquake preparedness and response. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020: 1-8. DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2020.30.

Runyan CW: Using the Haddon matrix: Introducing the third dimension. Inj Prev. 1998; 4(4): 302-307. DOI: 10.1136/ip.4.4.302.

Baker SP, Li G: Epidemiologic approaches to injury and violence. Epidemiol Rev. 2012; 34(1): 1-3.

Baru A, Azazh A, Beza L: Injury severity levels and associated factors among road traffic collision victims referred to emergency departments of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The study based on the Haddon matrix. BMC Emerg Med. 2019; 19(1): 2.

Zou X, Vu HL, Huang H: Fifty years of accident analysis & prevention: A bibliometric and scientometric overview. Accid Anal Prev. 2020; 144: 105568. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105568.

Brown J, Schonstein L, Ivers R, et al.: Children and motorcycles: A systematic review of risk factors and interventions. Inj Prev. 2018; 24(2): 166-175.

Johnson M, Bonham J, Haworth N: Cycle aware package: Using Haddon’s matrix to reduce novice driver crashes with cyclists. Traffic Inj Prev. 2018; 19(Suppl. 2): S158-S159.

Mahoney P, Gielen AC, Bailey MM, et al.: Applying the Haddon matrix to evaluate sexual assault interventions on college campuses. J Am Coll Health. 2020; 68(6): 579-586. DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2019.1583658.

Varney S, Hirshon JM, Dischinger P, et al.: Extending injury prevention methodology to chemical terrorism preparedness: The Haddon matrix and sarin. Am J Disaster Med. 2006; 1(1): 18-27.

Barnett DJ, Balicer RD, Blodgett D, et al.: The application of the Haddon matrix to public health readiness and response planning. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113(5): 561-566.

Shiau Y, Lo F, Ko P: Early intervention mechanism for preventing electrocution in construction engineering. Ind Health. 2021; 59: 4-17. DOI: 10.2486/indhealth.2020-0097.

Engström KG, Angrén J, Björnstig U, et al.: Mass casualty incidents in the underground mining industry: Applying the Haddon matrix on an integrative literature review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018; 12(1): 138-146.

Vriend I, Gouttebarge V, Finch CF, et al.: Intervention strategies used in sport injury prevention studies: A systematic review identifying studies applying the Haddon matrix. Sports Med. 2017; 47(10): 2027-2043. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-017-0718-y.

Tantisattamo E, Ferrey AJ, Reddy UG, et al.: Haddon matrix for kidney transplantation during COVID-19 pandemic: A problem solving framework for present and future. Transpl Infect Dis. 2020: e13373. DOI: 10.1111/tid.13373.

Tiwari A, Tarrant M, Yuen KH, et al.: Preparedness for influenza pandemic in Hong Kong nursing units. J Nursing Scholarship. 2006; 38(4): 308-313. DOI: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2006.00120.x.

Owen-Jones JM: Now biggest festival in the world thanks to record attendance. 2019. Available at https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2019/07/277167/mawazine-now-biggest-festival/. Accessed July 7, 2020.

Guttridge-Hewitt M: GEM is Georgia’s wonderful and insane 32-day marathon festival. 2017. Available at https://mixmag.net/feature/gem-is-the-32-day-festival-carrying-on-the-kazantip-spirit. Accessed July 7, 2020.

Carmichael T: Electronic dance music (EDM) fan behavior differs greatly from that of other music fans. Yahoo! Finance Web site. 2013. Available at http://finance.yahoo.com/news/electronic-dancemusic-edm-fan192420959.html. Accessed March 15, 2020.

Turris SA, Jones T, Lund A: Mortality at music festivals: An update for 2016-2017-academic and grey literature for case finding. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018; 33(5): 553-557.

Turris SA, Lund A: Mortality at music festivals: Academic and grey literature for case finding. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(1): 58-63.

Black E, Govindasamy L, Auld R, et al.: Toxicological analysis of serious drug-related harm among electronic dance music festival attendees in New South Wales, Australia: A consecutive case series. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020; 213: 108070.

De Brennan S: Dancing away from reform: The inquest into the death of six patrons of NSW music festivals. J Law Med. 2020; 27(3): 693-706.

Nadesan K, Kumari C, Afiq M: Dancing to death: A case of heat stroke. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017; 50: 1-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2017.05.008.

Ridpath A, Driver CR, Nolan ML, et al.: Illnesses and deaths among persons attending an electronic dance-music festival – New York city, 2013. M MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014; 63(50): 1195.

Hutton A, Savage C, Ranse J, et al.: The use of Haddon’s matrix to plan for injury and illness prevention at outdoor music festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015; 30(2): 175-183. DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X15000187.

FitzGibbon KM, Nable JV, Ayd B, et al.: Mass-gathering medical care in electronic dance music festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(5): 563-567. DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X1700663X.

National Association of State EMS Officials. National EMS Scope of Practice Model 2019 (Report No. DOT HS 812-666). National Association of State EMS Officials, 2019.

Lund A, Gutman SJ, Turris SA: Mass gathering medicine: A practical means of enhancing disaster preparedness in Canada. CJEM. 2011; 13(4): 231-236.

Sheng AY, Clark A, Amanti C: Supervision of resident physicians. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2020; 38(2): 339-351. DOI: 10.1016/j.emc.2020.02.004.

Barnett DJ, Strauss-Riggs K, Klimczak VL, et al.: An analysis of after action reports from Texas hurricanes in 2005 and 2017. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2021; 27(2): E71-E78. DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000001120.

Vahedian-Azimi A, Hajiesmaeili M, Kangasniemi M, et al.: Effects of stress on critical care nurses: A national cross-sectional study. J Intensive Care Med. 2019; 34(4): 311-322. DOI: 10.1177/0885066617696853.

Luftman K, Aydelotte J, Rix K, et al.: PTSD in those who care for the injured. Injury. 2017; 48(2): 293-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.11.001.

Fullerton CS, Ursano RJ, Wang L: Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161(8): 1370-1376. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.8.1370.

Brymer M, Jacobs A, Layne C, et al.: Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD, 2006: 5-6.

Chhabra N, Gimbar RP, Walla LM, et al.: Emergency department patient burden from an electronic dance music festival. J Emerg Med. 2018; 54(4): 435-439. DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.10.007.

Kim S, Friedman MS, Fitzpatrick C: Rattlesnakes, stabbings, hyperthermia and a visualized appendicitis? Music fest medical care recap. Linkedin.com web site. 2019. Available at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/rattlesnakes-stabbings-hyperthermia-visualizedmusic-fest-connor/. Accessed January 10, 2020.

Chacko S, Randolph R, Morsch G: Disaster medicine: Public health preparedness for natural disasters. FP Essent. 2019; 487: 17-22.

Memish ZA, Steffen R, White P, et al.: Mass gatherings medicine: Public health issues arising from mass gathering religious and sporting events. Lancet. 2019; 393(10185): 2073-2084. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(19)30501-x.

DeMott JM, Hebert CL, Novak M, et al.: Characteristics and resource utilization of patients presenting to the ED from mass gathering events. Am J Emerg Med. 2018; 36(6): 983-987.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC): Nationwide dissemination of multiply resistant Shigella Sonnei following a common-source outbreak. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1987; 36(38): 633-634.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Surveillance for early detection of disease outbreaks at an outdoor mass gathering–Virginia, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 55(3): 71-74.

Polkinghorne BG, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, et al.: Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: The experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia. Public Health. 2013; 127(1): 32-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2012.09.014.

Karami M, Doosti-Irani A, Ardalan A, et al.: Public health threats in mass gatherings: A systematic review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2019; 13(5-6): 1035-1046. DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.161.

Elliot AJ, Hughes HE, Hughes TC, et al.: Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Emerg Med J. 2012; 29(12): 954-960. DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2011-200684.

Lund A, Turris S: The event chain of survival in the context of music festivals: A framework for improving outcomes at major planned events. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(4): 437-443.

Shapira S, Friger M, Bar-Dayan Y, et al.: Healthcare workers’ willingness to respond following a disaster: A novel statistical approach toward data analysis. BMC Med Educ. 2019; 19(1): 130-112. DOI: 10.1186/s12909-019-1561-7.

Friedman MS, Plocki A, Likourezos A, et al.: A prospective analysis of patients presenting for medical attention at a large electronic dance music festival. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(1): 78-82.

Lim M, Hellard ME, Hocking JS, et al.: A cross-sectional survey of young people attending a music festival: Associations between drug use and musical preference. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2008; 27(4): 439-441. DOI: 10.1080/09595230802089719.

Westrol MS, Koneru S, McIntyre N, et al.: Music genre as a predictor of resource utilization at outdoor music concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(3): 289-296.

Palamar JJ, Acosta P, Sherman S, et al.: Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances among attendees of electronic dance music venues. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2016; 42(6): 624-632.

Krul J, Blankers M, Girbes AR: Substance-related health problems during rave parties in The Netherlands (1997–2008). PLoS One. 2011; 6(12): e29620.

Milsten AM, Tennyson J, Weisberg S: Retrospective analysis of mosh-pit-related injuries. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(6): 636-641. DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X17006689.

Hodge JG, Anderson ED, Kirsch T, et al.: Facilitating hospital emergency preparedness: Introduction of a model memorandum of understanding. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011; 5(1): 54-61. DOI: 10.1001/10-v4n2-hsf10003.

Hawk M, Coulter RWS, Egan JE, et al.: Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings. Harm Reduct J. 2017; 14(1): 70-79. DOI: 10.1186/s12954-017-0196-4.

Munn MB, Lund A, Golby R, et al.: Observed benefits to on-site medical services during an annual 5-day electronic dance music event with harm reduction services. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(2): 228-234.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/ajdm.2021.0405

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.