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Effects of tibial intraosseous and intravenous administration of Hextend on time of administration and hemodynamics in a hypovolemic swine model

James Wilson, BSN, Alex Passmore, BSN, Sephra Leger, BSN, Johnathon Lannan, BSN, Michael Bentley, PhD, Don Johnson, PhD


Objective: To determine if there were significant differences between the tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) administration of Hextend relative to time and in hemodynamics in a hypovolemic model.

Setting: Vivarium.

Subjects: Yorkshire swine; sample size was based on a power of 80 percent, α of 0.05, and a large effect size of 0.6. Swine were randomly assigned to one of three groups: TIO (n = 7), IV (n = 7), and control (n = 7).

Intervention: Swine were exsanguinated 30 percent of their blood volume. Hextend (500 mL) was administered either by the TIO or IV route; the control group received none.

Main Outcome: Time of administration of Hextend; systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) data were collected every 2 minutes and compared by group over 8 minutes.

Results: An independent t test determined that there was no significant difference between groups relative to time of administration (p = 0.001). A repeated analysis of variance found that there were no significant differences in SBP, DBP, MAP, HR, CO, and SV between the TIO and IV groups over 8 minutes (p > 0.05) but significant differences between both TIO and IV compared to the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: TIO is an effective and easily used method to administer Hextend for patients in hypovolemic shock. Based upon the findings of this study, the TIO route might be considered the first choice for rapid vascular access and the administration of Hextend.


Hextend, intraosseous, hypovolemic shock

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