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The effects of tibial intraosseous versus intravenous amiodarone administration in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest procine model

Kathryn Hampton, BSN, Eric Wang, BSN, Jerome Ivan Argame, BSN, Tom Bateman, BSN, William Craig, DNP, CRNA, Don Johnson, PhD


Objective: This study compared the effects of amiodarone via tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) routes on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), time to ROSC, maximum drug concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and mean concentrations over time in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model.

Design: Prospective, between subjects, randomized experimental design.

Setting: TriService Research Facility.

Subjects: Yorkshire-cross swine (n = 28).

Intervention: Swine were anesthetized and placed into cardiac arrest. After 2 minutes, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated. After an additional 2 minute, 300 mg of amiodarone were administered via the TIO or the IV route. Blood samples were collected over 5 minutes. The plasma concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Main Outcome Measurements: ROSC, time to ROSC, Cmax, Tmax, and mean concentrations over time.

Results: A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant differences in the TIO and IV groups in ROSC (p = 0.515), time to ROSC (p = 0.300), Cmax (p = 0.291), or Tmax (p = 0.475). The mean Cmax of the TIO group was 56,292 ± 11,504 ng/mL compared to 74,258 ± 11,504 ng/mL for the IV group. The Tmax for TIO and IV groups were 120 ± 25 and 94 ± 25, respectively. A repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant differences between the groups relative to concentrations over time (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The TIO provides rapid and reliable access to administer lifesaving medications during cardiac arrest.


amiodarone, intraosseous, return of spontaneous circulation, pharmacokinetics, resuscitation, hemorrhage

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