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Protective security measures for major sport events: Proposing a baseline standard

Stacey A. Hall, PhD, Thomas Cieslak II, PhD, Lou Marciani, EdD, Walter Cooper, EdD, James A. McGee, MS


The purpose of this study was to identify baseline protective measures for security management of major sport events. Baseline protective security measures are implemented as standard operating procedures (SOP) to serve as routine inspection for a facility. Security measures previously identified by Hall were assessed using a three-round Delphi survey and focus group study. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for the Delphi panel and focus group study. The Delphi panel (n _ 15) composed of sport security management professionals with experience coordinating security operations at major sporting events. Twelve respondents completed all the three Delphi rounds. Rankings for security measures were assessed during Round 1, while importance ratings were assessed on a 5-point Likert scale during Round 2, and 3 of the Delphi study. A focus group study (n_ 4) was conducted to validate the Delphi study findings and achieve consensus among key stakeholders.This study identified 33 baseline protective security measures in the following six categories: Physical Security, Technical Security, Access Control, Emergency Management,Training and Exercise, and Weapons of Mass Destruction.


sport security, emergency planning, event management

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