Rapidly assessing trauma exposure and stress resilience following large-scale disasters

H. Stefan Bracha, MD, O. Joseph Bienvenu, MD, PhD





Full Text:



Andreasen NC: Acute and delayed posttraumatic stress disorders: A history and some issues. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161: 1321- 1323.

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1987.

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th rev. ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Bracha HS, Williams AE, Haynes SN, et al.: The STRS (shortness of breath, tremulousness, racing heart, and sweating): A brief checklist for acute distress with panic-like autonomic indicators; development and factor structure. Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004; 3(1): 8.

Golier JA, Yehuda R, Bierer LM, et al.: The relationship of borderline personality disorder to posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic events. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 2018-2024.

Charney DS: Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: Implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161: 195-216.

Charney DS, Barlow DH, Botteron KN, et al.: Neuroscience research agenda to guide development of a pathophysiologically based classification system. In Kupfer DJ, First MB, Regier DA (eds.): A Research Agenda for DSM-V. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2002.

Bracha HS, Williams AE, Ralston TC, et al.: Preventing post-disaster PTSD: Watch for autonomic signs. Curr Psychiatry. 2005; 4: 40, 43.

Vaiva G, Brunet A, Lebigot F, et al.: Fright (effroi) and other peritraumatic responses after a serious motor vehicle accident: Prospective influence on acute PTSD development. Can J Psychiatry. 2003; 48: 395-401.

Vaiva G, Ducrocq F, Cottencin O, et al.: Immediate fright reaction: An essential criterion in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Can J Psychiatry. 2000; 45(10): 939.

Bracha HS: Freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint: Adaptationist perspectives on the acute stress response spectrum. CNS Spectr. 2004; 9: 679-685.

Bracha HS, Ralston TC, Matsukawa JM, et al.: Does “fight or flight” need updating? Psychosomatics. 2004; 45: 448-449.

Campbell-Sills L, Cohan SL, Stein MB: Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behav Res Ther. 2005; Jul 2 [Epub ahead of print].

Waugh WL: Terrorism and the all-hazards model. J Emerge Manage. 2005; 3: 8-10.

Pitman RK, Delahanty DL: Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectr. 2005; 10: 99-106.

Pitman RK, Sanders KM, Zusman RM, et al.: Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Biol Psychiatry. 2002; 51: 189-192.

Vaiva G, Ducrocq F, Jezequel K, et al.: Immediate treatment with propranolol decreases posttraumatic stress disorder two months after trauma. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54: 947-949.

Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Kanter ED, et al.: Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: A placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 371-373.

Connor KM, Davidson JR: Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety 2003; 18:76-82

National Center for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Risk and resilience factors. Honolulu, HI: NCPTSD, 2005. Available at www.ncptsd.va.gov/publications/assessment/Chart_of_Measures.htm. Accessed November 21, 2005.

Jehel L, Paterniti S, Brunet A, et al.: Prediction of the occurrence and intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder in victims 32 months after bomb attack. Eur Psychiatry. 2003; 18: 172-176.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2005.0061


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Emergency Management