Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Sequential ambiguity and uncertainty in the early stage of a disaster relief: A case study of the Bam earthquake

Maryam Hosseinnejad, PhD Candidate, Mina Mahdavian, MS, Farzaneh Zolala, PhD

Abstract


This study aimed to identify issues that arose during the early response stage of the Bam earthquake as perceived by the aid workers. Eleven people who had been involved in the Bam earthquake response, and who were working for the Red Crescent in Iran or the Kerman University of Medical Science teams, were interviewed. These groups were two of the main organizations providing assistance to victims of the Bam earthquake. The authors used two nonrandom sampling methods, namely, purposive and snowball sampling. The interviewees identified two main barriers for achieving an effective response at the early stage aftermath of the earthquake, as follows: first, the lack of accurate information on the location and extent of the earthquake due to shortage in communication tools and, second, inadequate training on different challenges posed in relation to the disaster, before the earthquake occurred.


Keywords


communication, information, training, education, natural disaster

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ghafory-Ashtiany M, Hosseini M: Post-Bam earthquake: Recovery and reconstruction. Nat Hazards. 2008; 44(2): 229-241.

Ramazi H, Jigheh HS: The Bam (Iran) earthquake of December 26, 2003: From an engineering and seismological point of view. J Asian Earth Sci. 2006; 27(5): 576-584.

Reynolds B, Seeger MW: Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model. J Health Commun. 2005; 10(1): 43-55.

Nasrabadi AN, Naji H, Mirzabeigi G, et al.: Earthquake relief: Iranian nursesÆ responses in Bam, 2003, and lessons learned. Int Nurs Rev. 2007; 54(1): 13-18.

Moosazadeh M, Zolala F, Sheikhzadeh K, et al.: Response to the Bam earthquake: A qualitative study on the experiences of the top and middle level health managers in Kerman, Iran. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014; 29(4): 388-391.

Nekoei-Moghadam M, Amiresmaili M, Aradoei Z: Investigation of obstacles against effective crisis management in earthquake. J Acute Dis. 2016; 5(2): 91-95.

Koehler GA: What Disaster Response Management Can Learn from Chaos Theory: California Research Bureau, California State Library, 1996.

Chan TC, Killeen J, Griswold W, et al.: Information technology and emergency medical care during disasters. Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11(11): 1229-1236.

Meissner A, Luckenbach T, Risse T, et al. (eds.): Design challenges for an integrated disaster management communication and information system. In: The First IEEE Workshop on Disaster Recovery

Networks (DIREN 2002), June 24, 2002; New York City, New York.

Kawamura Y, Dewan AM, Veenendaal B, et al.: Using GIS to develop a mobile communications network for disaster-damaged areas. Int J Digit Earth. 2014; 7(4): 279-293.

Landry LG, Stockton A: Evaluation of a collaborative project in disaster preparedness. Nurse Educ. 2008; 33(6): 254-258.

Shahin M: Easy access to victims of accidents to accelerate the rescue operation. Sci J Rescue Relief. 2010; 2(1): 66-80.

Murad MK, Husum H: Trained lay first responders reduce trauma mortality: A controlled study of rural trauma in Iraq. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010; 25(6): 533-539.

Su T, Han X, Chen F, et al.: Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e67041.

Loke AY, Fung OWM: NursesÆ competencies in disaster nursing: Implications for curriculum development and public health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014; 11(3): 3289-3303.

Kako M, Ranse J, Yamamoto A, et al.: What was the role of nurses during the 2011 Great East Earthquake of Japan? An integrative review of the Japanese literature. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014; 29(3): 275-279.

Kako M, Mitani S, Arbon P: Literature review of disaster health research in Japan: Focusing on disaster nursing education. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012; 27(2): 178-183.

Swygard H, Stafford RE: Effects on health of volunteers deployed during a disaster. Am Surg. 2009; 75(9): 747-752; discussion 752-753.

Connorton E, Perry MJ, Hemenway D, et al.: Humanitarian relief workers and trauma-related mental illness. Epidemiol Rev. 2012; 34(1): 145-155.

Thormar SB, Gersons BP, Juen B, et al.: The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health. J Anxiety Disord. 2014; 28(8): 971-977.

Hagh-Shenas H, Goodarzi MA, Dehbozorgi G, et al.: Psychological consequences of the Bam earthquake on professional and nonprofessional helpers. J Trauma Stress. 2005; 18(5): 477-483.

Curry L, Gass D: Effects of training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on competence and patient outcome. CMAJ. 1987; 137(6): 491.

Spence PR, Lachlan KA, Rainear AM: Social media and crisis research: Data collection and directions. Comput Hum Behav. 2016; 54: 667-672.

Spence PR, Lachlan KA: Disasters, crises, and unique populations: Suggestions for survey research. New Dir Eval. 2010; 2010(126): 95-106.

Garnett JL, Kouzmin A: Communicating throughout Katrina: Competing and complementary conceptual lenses on crisis communication. Public Adm Rev. 2007; 67: 171-188.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.0451

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Emergency Management