Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Implementation and effectiveness of the National Incident Management System’s Incident Command System in law enforcement since 2003

John K. Nichols, MS, LCC, Magdalena Denham, EdD

Abstract


This paper investigates the use of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)’s Incident Command System (ICS) in law enforcement since Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 was issued in 2003. It attempts to answer the following questions: (a) To what degree has law enforcement adopted the NIMS style ICS?; (b) To what degree has the NIMS/ICS framework been applicable to law enforcement?; and (c) Is the NIMS style ICS effective in the law enforcement response environment? The research includes a review of relevant case studies and literature and also includes the analysis of a survey instrument sent to 1,220 current and former law enforcement practitioners across the United States. The survey includes both open- and closed-ended questions. The data from closed-ended questions were compiled and displayed. Data from open-ended questions were grouped thematically. Responses were then assessed and compared with information gleaned from the literature review. Results indicate the system has been widely adopted by law enforcement, and its use is applicable and effective in some law enforcement responses. Its use in the highly chaotic initial phase of incidents, however, remains an open question.


Keywords


incident command, NIMS, ICS, law enforcement

Full Text:

PDF

References


Department of Homeland Security (DHS): Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5. 2003. Available at https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Homeland%20Security%20Presidential%20Directive%205.pdf 14. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): IS-0100.c: Introduction to the Incident Command System, (ICS-100). Instructor Guide. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security, 2018a. Available at https://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is/is100c/instructor%20guide/is0100c_ig.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Buck DA, Trainor JE, Aguirre BE: A critical Evaluation of the Incident Command System and NIMS. J Homeland Sec Emer Manage. 2006; 3: 3. DOI:10.2202/1547-7355.1252.

Brooks AC: Police self-deployment at critical incidents: A wicked problem or part of the solution. Naval Postgraduate School. 2017. Available at https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=805944. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Moody TJ: Filling the gap between NIMS/ICS and the Law Enforcement initial response in the age of the urban jihad. Naval Postgraduate School. 2010. Available at https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a531492.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Rowley J: Using case studies in research. Manage Res News. 2002; 25(1): 16-27. Available at http://psyking.net/HTMLobj-3843/using_case_study_in_research.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Anderson AI, Compton D, Mason, T: Managing in a dangerous world- The National Incident Management System. Eng Manage J. 2004; 16(4). Available at http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.shsu.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=2c3cd947-3744-4e88-a873-467eae3b442e%40sessionmgr4007. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Keen TH, Hamilton LH, Ben-Veniste R: et al.: The 9/11 Commission report. Final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: NY. Norton & Co, 2004.

Hansen RR: Letter to the Editor regarding incident command system (ICS). J Homeland Sec Emerg Manage. 2006; 3(4): Article 6. DOI:10.2202/1547-7355.1289.

Renaud CE: Making sense in the edge of chaos: A framework for effective initial response efforts to large scale incidents. Naval Postgraduate School. 2010. Available at https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=16032. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Wilson EK: Lessons Learned the Hard Way: Incident Command System Learning and Training. University of Delaware. 2013. Available at http://dspace.udel.edu/bitstream/handle/19716/12971/Eva_Wilson_thesis.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed April 24, 2020.

US Fire Administration USFA: The World Trade Center Bombing: Report and analysis. Technical Report Series. 1995. Available at https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/tr-076.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Oklahoma Department of Civil Emergency Management (ODCEM): After Action Report Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing 19 April 1995 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 1995. Available at https://www.ok.gov/OEM/documents/Bombing%20After%20Action%20Report.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

TriData Division, System Planning Corporation: Mass shootings at Virginia Tech. Addendum to the Report of the Review Panel. 2009. Available at https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/prevail/docs/April16ReportRev20091204.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Stambaugh H, Cohen H: I-35W Bridge Collapse and Response Minneapolis, Minnesota. 2007. Available at https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/tr_166.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Stewart JK: Independent Board of Inquiry into the Oakland Police Department. March 21, 2009 Incident. A public report of findings and recommendations. CNA Institute for Public Research. 2009. Available at http://www2.oaklandnet.com/oakca1/groups/police/documents/webcontent/dowd005731.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

TriData Division, System Planning Corporation: Aurora Century 16 Theater shooting after action report for the city of Aurora, Colorado. 2014. Available at http://justiceclearinghouse.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/C16-AAR.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Connecticut State Police [CSP]. After Action Report. Newtown Shooting Incident. December 14, 2012. 2013. Available at http://www.policefoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/csp_aar.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Metropolitan Police Department (MPD): After Action Report Washington Navy Yard September 16, 2013: Internal Review of the Metropolitan Police Department. Washington, DC: Metropolitan Police Department, 2014. Available at https://www.policefoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Washington-Navy-Yard-After-Action-Report.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Straub F, Cabria J, Castor J, et al.: Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub. Critical Response Initiative. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2017. Available at https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-w0857-pub.pdf. AccessedApril 24, 2020.

Moynihan DP: The network governance of crisis response: Case studies of Incident Command System. J Public Ad Res Theory. 2009; 19(4): 895-915. DOI:10.1093/jopart/mun033.

Donahue A, Tuohy R: Lessons we don’t learn: A study of the lessons of disasters, why we repeat them, and how we can learn them. Homeland Secur Aff. 2. 2006. Available at https://www.hsaj.org/articles/167. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Tsai J, Chi CSF: Cultural Influence on the Implementation of Incident Command System for Emergency management for Natural Disasters. J Homeland Sec Emerg Manage. 2012; 9(1). DOI:10.1515/1547-7355.1970.

Esposito JM: New York City Fire Department Chief Officer’s evaluation of the Citywide Incident Management System as it pertains to interagency emergency response. Naval Postgraduate School. 2011. Available at https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=691272. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Vanderveen, C: After Aurora [video]. 9 news Denver. July 19, 11:00. 2013. Available at http://archive.9news.com/theatershooting/memorial/default.aspx. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Pfeifer JW: Command resiliency: An adaptive response strategy for complex incidents. Naval Postgraduate school. 2005. Available at https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=438487. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Deal T, de Bettencourt M, Huyk V, et al.: Beyond Initial Response. Using the National Incident Management System’s Incident Command System. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006.

National Center for Biomedical Research and Training (NCBRT): Critical Decision Making for Complex Coordinated Attacks. PER-335 Instructor Guide. 2016. Available at https://rd.ncbrt.lsu.edu/store/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=/store/Critical%20Decision%20Making%20for%20Complex%20Coordinated%20A/01%20Instructor%20Guide/02CCAInstructorGuideNoCoversv11rev03-25-19.pdf&action=default. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training Center (ALERRT): Active Threat Integrated Response Course Instructor Guide (FEMA PER-340). San Marcos, TX: Texas State University, 2015. Accessed April 24, 2020.

C3 Pathways, Inc.: Emergency Preparedness Response. 2016. Available at http://www.c3pathways.com/. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Wang Q, Ma T, Hanson J, et al.: Application of Incident Command System in Emergency Response. Process Saf Prog. 2012, 31(4). DOI:10.1002/prs.11538.

Crick M, McKenna T, Buglova E, et al.: Emergency management in the early phase. Rad Protect Dosim. 2004; 109(1-2): 7-17. DOI:10.1093/rpd/nch246.

Jensen J, Thompson S: The incident command system: A literature review. Disasters. 2016; 40(1): 158-182. Available at http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.shsu.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=b65b5b71-54a4-4118-beeb-ec6ec68f0d5b%40sdc-v-sessmgr01. Accessed April 24, 2020. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Nicholson WC: The role of the Incident Command System. J Emerg Manage. 2006; 4(1). Available at https://wmpllc.org/ojs/index.php/jem/article/download/1579/1607. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Decker RJ: Acceptance and utilization of the Incident Command System in first response and allied disciplines: An Ohio study. J Bus Contin Emer Plan; 2014. 5(3): 224-230. Available at http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.shsu.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=f3e3b1c8-df09-4e54-8dd9-1be91efc3c39%40sessionmgr4006. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Bauer TP: Is NIMS going to get us where we need to be? A law enforcement perspective. Naval Postgraduate School. 2009; Available at https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a513966.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Teeter AC: On a clear day you can see ICS: The dying art of incident command and the normal accident of NIMS—A policy analysis. Naval Postgraduate School. 2013. Available at https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=736338. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Jensen J, Waugh WL: The United States’ experience with the incident command system: What we think we know and what we need to know more about. J Contin Crisis Manage. 2014; 22(1): 5-17. DOI: 10.1111/1468-5973.12034.

McGhee S: The Aurora Theater Shooting Experience: Considerations for Multi-Jurisdictional/Multi-Disciplinary Response to Mass Shooting Events. The Police Chief. 2016. Available at https://www.policechiefmagazine.org/the-aurora-theater-shooting-experience-considerations-for-multi-jurisdictionalmulti-disciplinary-response-to-mass-shooting-events/. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Cardwell MD, Cooney: Nationwide implementation of the incident command system. FBI Law Enforcement Bull. 2000; 69: 10. Available at file:///C:/Users/jkevi/Downloads/oct00leb.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Bellavita C: Changing Homeland Security: Shape, patterns, not programs. Naval Postgraduate School. 2006. Available at https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a484115.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Cole D: Chaos, complexity, and crisis management: A new description of the incident command system. National Fire Academy. 2001. Available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7c3f/e27686face62ee2265c1f36bb54eb84ad617.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Renaud CE: The missing piece of NIMS: Teaching incident commanders how to function in the edge of chaos. Homeland Secur Aff. 2012; 8(1): 2-18. Available at http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.shsu.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=baffcbd2-8127-4d5ca19a-defbcb2523f6%40sessionmgr103. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Cocker PA Mission command: Retooling the leadership paradigm for homeland security crisis response?. Naval Postgraduate School. 2015. Avaialble at https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=765307.

Harrold JR Agility and Discipline: Critical success factors for emergency response. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci. 2006. 604(1). DOI:10.1177/0002716205285404.

Bigley GA: The Incident Command System: Highly reliable organizing for complex and volatile task environments. Acad Manage J. 2001; 44: 1281-1300. Available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.127.2682&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Chang R, Trainor J: Pre-disaster established trust and relationship: Two major factors influencing the effectiveness of implementing ICS. J Homeland Sec Emerg Manage. 2018; 15: 4. DOI:10.1515/jhsem-2017-0050.

Bachman RD, Schutt RK. Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice. 4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2018.

FEMA.gov: Fiscal Year 2019 Homeland Security Grant Program (n.d.). Available at https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/178515. Accessed April 24, 2020.

SurveyMonkey.com (n.d.). Available at https://www.surveymonkey.com/welcome/sem-enterprise-pricing/. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Nix J, Pickett JT, Baek H et al.: Police research, officer surveys, and response rates. Polic Soc. 2017. DOI:10.1080/10439463.2017.1394300.

Banks D, Hendrix J, Hickman M, et al.: National sources of law enforcement employment data. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Program Report, 2016. Available at https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/nsleed.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Fact Sheet: FEMA’s Public Assistance Process. Press release number: DR-4362-AL FS 004. 2018b. Available at https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2018/06/07/fact-sheet-femas-public-assistance-process. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS): Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8. 2011. Available at https://www.dhs.gov/presidential-policy-directive-8-national-preparedness. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Ripley A: The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes-and Why. New York: Crown, 2009.

Texas Police Chief’s Association (TPCA): Sample Recognition Policy Manual (n.d.). Available at https://www.texaspolicechiefs.org/plugins/show_image.php?id=1785. Accessed 28 April, 2020.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): NIMS Implementation Objectives for Local, State, Tribal, and Territorial Jurisdictions. 2018c. Available at: https://www.fema.gov/medialibrary-data/1527847820319-0c604c12c628b5a8119fb8d08c4ed07c/NIMS_Implementation_Objectives_FINAL_20180530.pdf. Accessed May 1, 2020.

Lowrey W, Evans W, Gower KK, et al.: Effective media communications of disasters: Pressing problems and recommendations. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7(97). DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-7-97.

Paton D, Johnston D: Disasters and communities: Vulnerability, resilience and preparedness. Disaster Prev Manage. 2001; 10(4): 270-277. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Douglas_Paton/publication/249359249_Disasters_and_communities_Vulnerability_resilience_and_preparedness/links/0deec53b1cf0fca448000000.pdf. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Texas Government Code Chapter 418 Emergency Management. Subchapter E. Local and Interjurisdictional Emergency Management Sec. 481.106 Local and Interjurisdictional Emergency Management Plans. Available at https://statutes.capitol.texas.gov/Docs/GV/htm/GV.418.htm. Accessed April 24, 2020.

Chen R, Sharman R, Rao HR, et al.: Coordination in emergency response management. Developing a framework to analyze coordination patterns occurring in the emergency response life cycle. Commun ACM. 2008; 51(5). DOI:10.1145/1342327.1342340.

Simpson NC, Hancock PG: Fifty years of operational research and emergency response. J Oper Res Soc. 2009; 60(sup1): s126-s139. DOI:10.1057/jors.2009.3.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.0602

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Emergency Management