Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Practical flood risk reduction strategies in South Sudan

John V. Mayen, MS, Erik Wood, MS, Tim Frazier, PhD

Abstract


More extreme weather patterns caused by climate change are leading to more intense and frequent flooding in some of the world’s most vulnerable locations. The Republic of South Sudan faces obstacles mitigating rivers and urban floods caused by heavy rainfall in many of its regions. Through a focused review of the related literature, this study will first analyze the effectiveness and failures of the South Sudanese government’s attempts to mitigate flood risks, save lives, and prevent property damage. Study data are derived from various sources including peer-reviewed research, government and nongovernment documents, and the news media. Next, using similar qualitative review methods, a parallel case study from Bangladesh will be used to glean comparative findings and help formulate flood risk reduction recommendations for South Sudan. Findings include that government efforts are highly reactive and lack adequate resources to address flood mitigation. Analysis also indicates that locally driven structural and nonstructural disaster risk reduction efforts are critical to reducing vulnerability to this ongoing and intensifying threat. The study implications and recommendations advance the existing literature on this topic and are relevant to any global region displaying vulnerability opposite the complex threat of repeated intense flooding.


Keywords


Flood hazard, climate change, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, South Sudan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aerts JC: A review of cost estimates for flood adaptation. Water. 2018; 10(11): 1646.

Doocy S, Daniels A, Murray S, et al.: The human impact of floods: A historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review. PLoS Curr. 2013; 5.

Hallegatte S, Green C, Nicholls RJ, et al.: Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nat Clim Change. 2013; 3(9): 802-806.

Winsemius HC, Jongman B, Veldkamp TIE, et al.: Disaster risk, climate change, and poverty: Assessing the global exposure of poor people to floods and droughts. Environ Dev Econ. 2018; 23: 328-348.

Marsooli R, Lin N, Emanuel K, et al.: Climate change exacerbates hurricane flood hazards along US Atlantic and Gulf coasts in spatially varying patterns. Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1): 1-9.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): How climate change is making record-breaking floods the new normal. 2020. Available at https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/how-climate-change-making-record-breaking-floods-new-normal. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Tierney K: The Social Roots of Risk: Producing Disasters, Promoting Resilience. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014.

Hallegatte S, Vogt-Schilb A, Bangalore M, et al.: Unbreakable: Building the Resilience of the Poor in the Face of Natural Disasters. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2016.

Wood EX, Frazier TG: Disasters, community vulnerability, and poverty: The intersection between economics and emergency management. J Emerg Manag. 2021; 19(3): 227-233. DOI 10.5055/jem.0563.

Carter NT: Flood Resilience and Risk Reduction: Federal Assistance and Programs. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2019.

International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC): What is vulnerability? (n.d.). Available at https://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disaster-management/about-disasters/what-is-a-disaster/what-isvulnerability/.

World Bank Group: South Sudan. Climate change: Knowledge portal. 2021. Available at www.climatechangeknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/south-sudan. Accessed February 16, 2021.

ACAPS: South Sudan—Country profile. 2018. Available at https://www.acaps.org/country/south-sudan/country-profile. Accessed January 27, 2021.

UNHCR: Thirty-one people are newly displaced every minute of the day: Forced displacement in 2017. UNHCR Global Trends. 2017. Available at www.https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2017/. Accessed April 17, 2021.

Council on Foreign Relations (CFR): The civil war in South Sudan. Global Conflict Tracker. 2021. Available at www.cfr.org/globalconflict-tracker/civil-war-South-Sudan. Accessed February 17, 2021.

Albano AT: Determination of successful secession in post-colonial Africa: The case of South Sudan. Braz J Afr Stud. 2018; 3(6).

Specia M: A peace deal for South Sudan is signed. Will it last? New York Times. 2018. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/27/world/africa/south-sudan-peace-deal.html. Accessed March 2, 2021.

FEMA: Building community resilience with nature-based solutions. A Guide for Local Communities. 2020. Available at www.fema.gov. Accessed February 18, 2021.

National Adaptation Programme of Actions to Climate Change (NAPA): Republic of South Sudan ministry of the environment. 2015. Available at https://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/workstreams/national_adaptation_programmes_of_action/application/pdf/sout. Accessed January 21, 2021.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA): South Sudan—2018 Humanitarian Response Plan. 2017. Available at https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/SS_2018_HumanitarianResponsePlan.pdf. Accessed January 21, 2021.

United Nations (UN): South Sudan famine threat: UN food security agency in ‘race against time’. UN News. 2019. Available at https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/12/1053321. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Young H, Larsson N, Leach A, et al.: The crisis in South Sudan can’t be solved with more money. We need peace. The Guardian. 2016. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2016/mar/24/south-sudan-fundinghumanitarian-crisis-famine-peace. Accessed January 21, 2021.

World Bank: The World Bank in South Sudan—Overview. 2018. Available at http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/southsudan/overview. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Associated Press News (AP): ‘Our children die in our hands’: Floods ravage South Sudan. 2021. Available at www.apnews.com/article/climate-south-sudan-hunger-health-floods. Accessed February 25, 2021.

Patel RB, Wild HB: To do no harm: Humanitarian aid in conflict demands political engagement. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018; 12: 567-568.

United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): Minimum standards for prevention and response to gender-based violence in emergencies. 2015. Available at www.unfpa.org. Accessed February 11, 2021.

ACAPS: South Sudan—Floods. Briefing Notes. 2019. Available at https://www.acaps.org/sites/acaps/files/products/files/20191104_acaps_start_briefing_note_south_sudan_floods_0.pdf.

Stajura M, Glik D, Eisenman D, et al.: Perspectives of community- and faith-based organizations about partnering with local health departments for disasters. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012; 9(7): 2293-2311.

Patel SS, Rogers MB, Amlôt R, et al.: What do we mean by ‘community resilience’? A systematic literature review of how it is defined in the literature. PLoS Curr. 2017; 9: 2-13, 72-82.

FEMA: Building community resilience by integrating hazard mitigation. The role of local leadership. 2020. Available at fema.gov/multi-hazard-mitigation-planning. Accessed February 19, 2021.

The Enough Project: Threat without consequences for atrocities and kleptocracy: The paper in South Sudan. 2016. Available at https://enoughproject.org/reports/paper-tiger-south-sudan-threatswithout-consequences-atrocities-and-kleptocracy. Accessed April 17, 2021.

Yayboke E: Accessing South Sudan: Humanitarian aid in a time of crisis. CSIS Briefs. 2018. Available at https://www.csis.org/analysis/accessing-south-sudan-humanitarian-aid-time-crisis. Accessed March 9, 2021.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA): South Sudan: UN CERF allocates $10 million for flood response. 2020. Available at https://www.unocha.org/story/south-sudan-un-cerf-allocates-10-million-flood-response. Accessed February 22, 2021.

De Coning C, Tchie AEY, Grand AO, et al.: Climate, peace and security fact sheet: South Sudan. 2021. Available at https://www.nupi.no/en/News/Climate-Peace-and-Security-Fact-Sheet-South-Sudan. Accessed January 21, 2021.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA): CERF allocates US$15 million for flooding response in South Sudan. 2019. Available at https://www.unocha.org/story/south-sudan-cerf-allocates-15-million-flooding-response. Accessed February 16, 2021.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA): South Sudan: Flood’s emergency response strategy and funding requirements. 2019. Available at https://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan/south-sudan-floods-pose-newthreats-children-and-families. Accessed February 13, 2021.

UN News: Flooding leaves South Sudan facing threat of ‘catastrophic’ hunger levels: Humanitarian aid. 2020. Available at https://news.un.org/. Accessed February 17, 2021.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA): South Sudan floods pose new threats to children and families. 2020. Available at https://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan/south-sudan-floods-pose-new-threats-children-andfamilies. Accessed February 15, 2020.

O’Driscoll D: Drivers of malnutrition in South Sudan. K4D Helpdesk Report. University of Manchester. 2018. Available at https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/20.500.12413/14224/466_Drivers_of_Malnutrition_in_South_Sudan.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed March 2, 2021.

Cullis A: Understanding the livestock economy of South Sudan: Field study findings. Tana Copenhagen Aps. 2021. Available at https://tanacopenhagen.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Field-Report.pdf. Accessed March 2, 2021.

World Food Program: Humanitarian response plan: South Sudan. 2019. Available at www.unwfp.org. Accessed February 16, 2021.

Thinkhazard: Natural hazards identification in South Sudan. Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery. 2020. Available at https://thinkhazard.org/en/report/74-South-Sudan. Accessed March 27, 2021.

Tiitmamer N: South Sudan’s devastating floods: Why there is a need for urgent resilience measures. The Sudd Institute. 2020. Available at https://www.suddinstitute.org/assets/Publications/5fbcef5b321bd_SouthSudansDevastatingFloodsWhyThereIs_Full.pdf. Accessed January 24, 2021.

Podesta J: The climate crisis, migration, and refugees. Brookings Institute. 2019. Available at https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-climate-crisis-migration-and-refugees/. Accessed January 21, 2021.

USAID: South Sudan Climate Vulnerability Profile: Sector-and Location-Specific Climate Risks and Resilience Recommendations. Global Environmental Management Support Program. 2019. Available at www.usaid.gov. Accessed February 17, 2021.

World Food Program USA (WFP): The first climate change conflict: South Sudan. 2017. Available at https://www.wfpusa.org/articles/the-first-climate-change-conflict/. Accessed February 17, 2021.

Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET): South Sudan—Food security outlook update. 2018. Available at http://fews.net/east-africa/south-sudan/food-security-outlook-update/april-2018. Accessed January 24, 2021.

ACTED: South Sudan| Uncategorized: Climate Resilience: Better Agricultural Practices for Better Incomes. Paris: ACTED Global, 2020. Available at https://www.acted.org/en/climate-resilience-better-agricultural-practices-for-better-incomes. Accessed March 28, 2021.

Herslund LB, Jalayer F, Jean-Baptiste N, et al.: A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nat Hazards. 2016; 82(2): 149-172. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-015-1856-x.

USAID: USG South Sudan complex emergency fact sheet #2. 2021. Available at www.usaid.gov. Accessed February 16, 2021.

USAID: USG response to complex emergency in South Sudan. 2021. Available at www.usaid.gov. Accessed February 20, 2021.

Hallegatte S, Fay M, Barbier E, et al.: Disaster risk, climate change, and poverty: Assessing the global exposure of poor people to floods and droughts. 2018; 23(3): 328-348. DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X17000444.

Juana JS, Kahaka Z, Okurut FN: Farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change in Sub-Sahara Africa: A synthesis of empirical studies and implications for public policy in African agriculture. J Agricult Sci. 2013; 5(4): 121.

O’Brien G, O’Keefe P, Rose J, et al.: Climate change and disaster management. Disasters. 2006; 30(1): 64-80. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2006.00307.x.

Muhonda P, Mabiza C, Makurira H, et al.: Analysis of institutional mechanisms that support community response to impacts of floods in the middle-Zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C. 2014; 76:64-71.

United Nations: Sustainable development goals. Disaster risk reduction. 2015. Available at www.https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/disasterriskreduction. Accessed March 12, 2021.

Fikru M: Determinants of international standards in Sub-Saharan Africa: The role of institutional pressure from different stakeholders. Ecol Econ. 2016; 130:296-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.08.007.

United Nations Climate Change (UNCC): What is the United Nations framework convention on climate change? (n.d.). Available at https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-convention/whatis-the-united-nations-framework-convention-on-climate-change. Accessed January 21, 2021.

US Department of State: The sentry’s report on corruption in South Sudan. 2016. Available at www.us.states.gov/. Accessed February 17, 2021.

United Nations: Disaster Risk Reduction in Bangladesh Status Reports 2020. UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center. 2020. Available at www.un.org. Accessed March 30, 2021.

Islam MT, Nursey-Bray M: Adaptation to climate change in agriculture in Bangladesh: The role of formal institutions. J Environ Manag. 2017; 200: 347-358.

Matin N, Taher M: The changing emphasis of disasters in Bangladesh NGOs. Disasters. 2001; 25(3): 227-239.

Islam R, Walkerden G: Social networks and challenges in government disaster policies: A case study from Bangladesh. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2017; 22: 325-334.

Chowdhury AMR, Bhuiya A, Chowdhury ME, et al.: The Bangladesh paradox: Exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty. Lancet. 2013; 382(9906): 1734-1745.

Seddiky MA, Giggins H, Gajendran T: International principles of disaster risk reduction informing NGOs strategies for community based DRR mainstreaming: The Bangladesh context. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2020; 48: 101580.

BBC News: Rivers and Flooding. Case Study: Bangladesh. 2017. Available at bbc.co.uk. Accessed March 29, 2021.

Hossain MN, Paul SK: Vulnerability factors and effectiveness of disaster mitigation measures in the Bangladesh Coast. Earth Syst Environ. 2018; 2(1): 55-65.

World Bank: Bangladesh: Reducing poverty and sharing prosperity. 2018. Available at www.ttps://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2018/11/15/bangladesh-reducing-poverty-and-sharing-prosperity. Accessed March 30, 2021.

Shaw R, Mallick F, Islam A (Eds.): Disaster Risk Reduction Approaches in Bangladesh. Vol. 103. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.

Phillips B: Qualitative methods and disaster research. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1997; 15(1): 179-195.

Dudovskiy J: Research methodology: Data collection methods. 2011. Available at https://research-methodology.net/research-methods/data-collection/. Accessed February 11, 2021.

Alderman L, Towers S, Bannah S: Student feedback systems in higher education: A focused literature review and environmental scan. Qual High Educ. 2012; 18(3): 261-280.

Walton AL, Rogers B: Workplace hazards faced by nursing assistants in the United States: A focused literature review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017; 14(5): 544.

Ranganathan R, Briceno-Garmendia C: South Sudan’s Infrastructure: A Continental Perspective. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011.

Alcoforado F: Flood control and its management. J Atmos Earth Sci. 2018, 1: 005. DOI: 10.24966/AES-8780/100005. Available at https://www.heraldopenaccess.us/article_pdf/15/flood-control-andits-management.pdf. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Bertilsson L, Wiklund K, de Moura Tebaldi I, et al.: Urban flood resilience—A multi-criteria index to integrate flood resilience into urban planning. J Hydrol (Amsterdam). 2019; 573: 970-982. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.06.052.

Schwartz J: Vast defenses now shielding New Orleans. New York Times. 2012. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/15/us/vast-defenses-now-shielding-new-orleans.html. Accessed January 15, 2021.

US Army Corps of Engineers: Seabrook floodgate complex. 2013. Available at https://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/Portals/56/docs/PAO/FactSheets/SeabrookFloodgateComplex.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2021.

Cardno CA: Massive flood protection project under way in Bangladesh. Civil Engineering Magazine. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 2015. Available at https://www.asce.org/magazine/20150203-massive-flood-protection-project-underway-in-bangladesh/. Accessed January 15, 2021.

TrapBag: Flood protection. 2021. Available at www.https://trapbag.com/flood-protection/. Accessed March 21, 2021.

Sulzberger AG: Shovel, strain, stack no more in high water. New York Times. 2011. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/09/us/09flood.html. Accessed March 9, 2021.

Smith B: City set to OK $746K beach erosion control contract. Evanston Now. 2020. Available at https://evanstonnow.com/city-setto-ok-746k-beach-erosion-control-contract/. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Greene M: Work underway to fill sinkholes and stabilize parts of the lakefront on the South side as first major storm of the season strikes. Chicago Tribune. 2021. Available at https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/environment/ct-lake-michigan-shoreline-protection-chicago-20210126-wkkrbm4f2bfktgkna6jewvv3se-story.html. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Jamasmie C: Operations resume at Barrick’s Veladero mine. 2016. Available at http://www.mining.com/operations-resume-atbarricks-veladero-mine/. Accessed January 24, 2021.

Castilla J: Barrick faces sanctions for Argentina cyanide spills, judge says. Reuters. 2017. Available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-barrick-gold-mine-argentina-exclusive/exclusive-barrickfaces-sanctions-for-argentina-cyanide-spills-judge-says-idUSKBN1841BK. Accessed March 9, 2021.

Hassani A, Melan A, Zawawi MH, et al.: Stability analysis and cost benefit analysis of the extension retaining wall for Kenyir dam spillway. In International Conference on Dam Safety Management and Engineering. Singapore: Springer, 2019: 671-679.

Wekem AC: Adoption of appropriate measures to minimize the effects of floods on housing in the three Northern regions of Ghana, the perspective of consultants (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Education, Winneba), 2015.

International Organization for Migration (IOM): Protecting communities: IOM’s humanitarian assistance programme at work. 2014. Available at https://afghanistan.iom.int/feature-stories/protecting-communities-ioms-humanitarian-assistance-programme-work. Accessed January 24, 2021.

Cesvi: Somalia: Gabion Walls for River Embankment. Bergamo, Italy: Cesvi—Participatory Foundation and NGO Italy. 2019. Available at https://www.cesvi.eu/news/somalia-gabion-walls-forriver-embankment/. Accessed March 9, 2021.

Mulligan J, Harper J, Kipkemboi P, et al.: Community-responsive adaptation to flooding in Kibera, Kenya. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Engineering Sustainability. Vol. 170, No. 5. London: Thomas Telford Ltd, 2016: 268-280.

The New Humanitarian: Flood abatement efforts yield mixed results. 2008. Available at https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/fr/node/242940. Accessed February 11, 2021.

Schanze J, Hutter G, Offert A, et al.: Systematisation, Evaluation and Context Conditions of Structural and Non-Structural Measures for Flood Risk Reduction. CRUE Research Report No. 1-1. London: CRUE Funding Initiative on Flood Risk Management Research, 2008.

Andjelkovic I: Guidelines on Non-Structural Measures in Urban Flood Management. International Hydrological Programme (IHP). Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2001.

Jongman B, Kreibich H, Apel H, et al.: Comparative flood damage model assessment: Towards a European approach. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci. 2012; 12(12): 3733-3752.

Haque CE, Azad MA, Choudhury M: The discourse of flood management approaches and policies in Bangladesh: Mapping the changes, drivers, and actors. Water (Basel). 2019; 11(12): 2654.

International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC): Finding simple solutions to deal with floods in Bangladesh. 2007. Available at https://www.ifrc.org/ar/noticias/noticias/asia-pacific/bangladesh/finding-simple-solutions-to-deal-with-floods-in-bangladesh/. Accessed March 10, 2021.

Kamruzzaman M, Shaw R: Flood and sustainable agriculture in the Haor basin of Bangladesh: A review paper. Univ J Agricult Res. 2018; 6(1): 40-49.

Ali MH, Bhattacharya B, Islam AKMS, et al.: Challenges for flood risk management in flood-prone Sirajganj region of Bangladesh. J Flood Risk Manag. 2019; 12(1): e12450.

Index Mundi: Country Comparisons—South Sudan vs. Bangladesh. (n.d.). Available at https://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/compare/south-sudan.bangladesh. Accessed February 11, 2021.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.0669

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Emergency Management