Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Information and communication technology: Connecting the public and first responders during disasters

Michelle M. Buzzelli, MS, CHES, Paula Morgan, BA, Alexander G. Muschek, BA, Gavin Macgregor-Skinner, BVSc, MSc, MPH, MRCVS

Abstract


Lack of success in disaster recovery occurs for many reasons, with one predominant catalyst for catastrophic failure being flawed and inefficient communication systems. Increased occurrences of devastating environmental hazards and human-caused disasters will continue to promulgate throughout the United States and around the globe as a result of the continuous intensive urbanization forcing human population into more concentrated and interconnected societies. With the rapid evolutions in technology and the advent of Information and communication technology (ICT) interfaces such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, Myspace, and Smartphone technology, communication is no longer a unidirectional source of information traveling from the newsroom to the public. In the event of a disaster, time critical information can be exchanged to and from any person or organization simultaneously with the capability to receive feedback. A literature review of current information regarding the use of ICT as information infrastructures in disaster management during human-caused and natural disasters will be conducted. This article asserts that the integrated use of ICTs as multidirectional information sharing tools throughout the disaster cycle will increase a community's resiliency and supplement the capabilities of first responders and emergency management officials by providing real-time updates and information needed to assist and recover from a disaster.


Keywords


ICT, disaster preparedness, emergency management, social media

Full Text:

PDF

References


Maron DF: How social media is changing disaster response. Scientific American. June 7, 2013. Available at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-social-media-is-changing-disaster-response/. Accessed July 13, 2014.

Harman W: Social Media Manager at the American Red Cross. Washington, DC: American Red Cross, 2010.

Velev D, Zlateva P: Use of Social Media in Natural Disaster Management. Sofia: University of National and World Economy, 2011.

Preston C, Wallace N: Donations to aid Haiti exceed $210-million, chronical tally finds. The Chronicle of Philanthropy. January 16, 2010.

Merchant RM, Elmer S, Lurie N: Integrating social media into emergency-preparedness. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 289-291.

Cohen H: Social media definitions. Actionable Marketing Guide. May 9, 2011. Available at http://heidicohen.com/social-media-definition/. Accessed July 13, 2014.

DHS: Lessons Learned: Social Media and Hurricane Sandy. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security, 2013.

Perron BE, Taylor HO, Glass JE, et al.: Information and Communication Technologies in Social Work. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2010.

Brooks S: Emergency MGMT 2.0: How #SocialMedia & New Tech are Transforming Preparedness, Response, & Recovery #Disasters #Part2 #Govt/NGOs. Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, 2013.

Waters JK, Lester J: The Everything Guide to Social Media: All You Need to Know About Participating in Today's Most Popular Online Communities. Avon: Adams Media, 2010.

UNISDR: UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda. United Nations: United Nations Development Policy and Analysis Division, 2012.

Dufty N: Using social media to build community disaster resilience. Aust J Emerg Manag. 2012; 27(1): 40-45.

Yates D, Paquette S: Emergency knowledge management and social media technologies: A case study of the 2010 Hatian earthquake. Int J Inf Manag. 2011; 31(1): 6-13.

Besaleva LI, Weaver AC: Applications of Social Networks and Crowdsourcing for Disaster Management Improvement. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Department of Computer Science, 2013.

Greer MB Jr, Ngo JW: Personal Emergency Preparedness Plan (PEPP) Facebook App: Using cloud computing, mobile technology, and social networking services to decompress traditional channels of communication during emergencies and disasters. In 2012 IEEE Ninth International Conference on Services Computing; May 2012: 494-498; Honolulu, HI.

Sawchak A: Social media's role in disaster response improves overall organizational resiliency. Forbes. October 29, 2013.

Mele N: Social media's role in Boston bombing investigation. ABCNews. April 20, 2014.

Qu H: Social Media and the Boston Bombings: When Citizens and Journalists Cover the Same Story. April 17, 2013. Available at http://www.niemanlab.org/2013/04/social-media-and-the-bostonbombings-when-citizens-and-journalists-cover-the-same-story/. Accessed March 15, 2014.

Yin J, Lampert A, Cameron M, et al.: Using social media to enhance emergency situation awareness. Soc Netw. 2012; 27(6): 52-59.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2014.0207

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Emergency Management